Unmoved mover According to Aristotle, this is what gives nature its purpose, or final cause, but was itself uncaused. In Aristotle’s philosophy, the unmoved mover was a logical necessity.

Vegetative (or nutritive) soul The soul possessed by plants. It allows only growth, the intake of nutrition, and reproduction.

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Xenophanes Believed people created gods in their own image. He noted that dark-skinned people created dark-skinned gods and light-skinned people created light-skinned gods. He speculated that the gods created by nonhuman animals would have the characteristics of those animals. He postulated the existence of one all-powerful god without human characteristics but warned that all beliefs are suspect, even his own.

Zeno of Elea A disciple of Parmenedes known for his clever examples and fables.

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