1. In a heated discussion, people will sometimes ask an opponent, “Why are you being so defensive?” This is obviously a rhetorical question. What is the point of this question? Does it implicitly involve an ad hominem fallacy?
2. In the biblical story of Job, Job is described as a person who “was blameless and upright, one who feared God and turned away from evil” (Job 1:1). Satan challenges God to allow him to subject Job to the worst calamities to see if Job’s faith will remain unchanged. After the most extreme misfortunes, Job finally cries out and asks why he should be made to suffer so (Job 38:1–4):
Then the Lord answered Job out of the whirlwind: Who is this that darkens counsel by words without knowledge? Gird up your loins like a man. I will question you, and you shall declare to me. Where were you when I laid the foundation of the earth? Tell me, if you have understanding.
Does God’s response to Job involve an ad hominem silencer, dismisser, or denier? Is it justified? Why or why not?