One technology that is utilized extensively as part of cloud computing is “virtualization.” Virtualization is the process of using software to simulate a computer or some other device. For example, using virtualization, a single computer can perform the functions of several computers. Companies such as EMC provide virtualization software that allows cloud service providers to provision web servers to their clients quickly and efficiently. Organizations are also implementing virtualization in order to reduce the number of servers needed to provide the necessary services. For more detail on how virtualization works, see this informational page from VMWare.
Software programming was originally an individual process, with each programmer working on an entire program, or several programmers each working on a portion of a larger program.