Vaccine Efficacy and Safety

Vaccine Efficacy and Safety

You are a voting member of a CDC committee setting policy for vaccinations. The year is 1999 and you are presented with a summary of epidemiologic data for the US polio vaccination program. Highlights of the data include a rapid decline in incidence of poliomyelitis in the United States from an annual average of 35,000 cases before licensure, to less than 100 cases in the 1970s after the licensure of IPV in 1955 and OPV in the 1963. The last cases of endemic polio in the United States occurred in 1979. The Global Polio Eradication Initiative subsequently eliminated polio in the Americas, where the last wild polio–associated polio case was detected there in 1991. Since then the US incidence has been steady at less than 10 cases a year, some of which were travelers from endemic countries and others who got sick with vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP). The current US policy is to use either the IPV or OPV, however, the committee is voting today to switch to a policy in which only the IPV would be used in the US.

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Part 1

1.Describe the general structural characteristics of this category of microbial agents.

2.Describe the general steps of viral pathogenesis.

3.What is the difference between infection and disease?

4.What are normal microbiota and how are they part of the human immune system?

5.Vaccines are important for generating immunity. Is active or passive immunity the result of effective vaccines? Explain the difference between these in your response.

Part 2

1.What pathogen causes Polio disease? Describe its structure and pathogenesis, be specific and detailed.

2.Is this a primary or opportunistic pathogen?

3.Is the polio vaccine attenuated or inactivated? What are the advantage and disadvantages of each form of vaccine?

4.How does the polio vaccine provide herd immunity?

5.Would you vote to switch to IPV or stick with OPV? Explain your choice in context of vaccine efficacy, safety and differences between the inactivated and attenuated forms of this vaccine.Remember to include one image related to the microbe and/or pathogenesis, use your own words.

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