It has been argued that “a company that deserves a union gets one,” this suggests that in case proper leadership and motivation techniques are employed and desirable policies are devised, the workers will not want to unionise. The fact is that labour union within organisations are formed to ensure that there is furthering of economic and social interests of the workers. Despite relevant leadership and motivation strategies that are employed and desirable policies, this does not guarantee that workers will not want to unionise (Davis, 2013). Workers are faced with other issues or factors that make them consider unionising which do not relate with the leadership, satisfaction, and motivation in an organisation. Workers are rational creatures and they act rationally in different speciality of lives. Similarly, staffs may consider unionising with the rationale approach which may be beneficial or not. This is well justified via cost-benefit analysis. In case benefits are in excess of costs being marked with rewards or profits, workers will be justified to join trade unions (Davis, 2013).

Proper leadership and motivation of workers does not guarantee job security which is a core reason behind whey staff consider unionising. In fact, employees are always in the need to have sense of job security and wish to be sure that the leaders and management will not in any way make unjustified or unfair arbitrary decision on the employment. In such an instance, workers will look for trade unions to ensure that their engagement is duly protected against any recalls, promotion, lay offs among others (Davis, 2013).

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In addition, proper management and motivation does not mean that there are fair wages and benefits. Employees may opt to unionise since they believe that they work for their livelihood. It is obvious that, employee livelihood is a significant issue far from management and motivation given by the organisation leaders. In such a situation, employees may have an idea that the unions will guarantee united strength that will make sure there is fair wage as par to that of other staffs in the society, benefits like pensions, medical facilities, vacations, holidays, and paid sick leaves (Davis, 2013).  

Conversely, some employees have been able to trace the fact that unions structure are offering them chances of gaining recognition that is absent among business organisation despite having proper management and motivations (Davis, 2013). In addition, employer may consider unionising despite all motivation and management strategies set in place being the desire of obtaining voice of decisions that impact them while working. There are employees who may feel that they are lost among the complex, large industrial society where unionizing may be taken as the last hope that will have capacity of influencing their destiny (Schulten & Müller, 2015).

Non- Economic Means of Impasse Resolution

Non-binding mediation and negotiation are part of alternative dispute resolution strategies that may be designed in resolving conflicts between parties that have been unable to reach agreement. These processes are directed toward resolving conflict before it moves further. Staffs may use negation and mediation procedures rather than looking for an outside experts who are referred to as third-party neutrals (Slater, 2013).

Negotiation is an excellent process of making bargain between two or more conflicting interests. This process may be executed directly by the concerned parties or may take place during the mediation process. Under negotiation process, the concerned parties are expected to meet and resolving the underling dispute (Slater, 2013). Pros of negotiation are that it assists in dealing directly with the proponent with equal participation; it is mainly useful within informal situations. Cons of negation is that essential participants may be identified, sessions must be structured and finding a neutral location for meeting which may be challenging (Slater, 2013).

On the other hand, mediation process utilises impartial, trained third party who assists in reaching consensus on the conflicting issue among the disagreeing parties in public contribution. The mediator may be from outside or within an organisation but is expected to be neutral and be perceived by parties involved as neutral (Schulten & Müller, 2015). Mediation process may be binding or non-binding. Pros associated with mediation process are such as: they resolve differences or conflicts with no court suits, assists in facilitation of agreement and deal with core concerns of interest groups, ensures there is working together to ease project or plan implementation (Slater, 2013). Cons of mediation are that there is the need to have sufficient time of sessions to ensure there is follow-up analysis and work, and for the complex mediation process, it may take quite long to agree on the way forward (Schulten & Müller, 2015).

Does Declined Unionization in Private Sector Cause Increased Career and Workplace Dissatisfaction?

Currently, there is depressed wages an issue that may be attributed toward various economic trends such as globalization and sending of jobs offshore to immigrant labour and new technologies. However, the dissatisfaction within workplaces and career may be attributed to the declined union membership a move that has left rank and file employees with no powers of public advocate (Schulten & Müller, 2015). In today work environment, unionized workers represent 12 percent of the workforces where 7 percent represent the private workers. Decline in organised labour has impacted the workplace productivity and career where argument has been based on the aspect that many unionised workplace have impetus of being productive. Unionization in the private sector has been on its decline.

Advantages and Disadvantages in Using Seniority as a Factor to Determine Shift Preference or Overtime Assignments

Seniority has to do with the length of time an individual worker has served in a given job or working in an organization. Seniority is an aspect that is known for introduction of higher status, precedence, or rank to employees who have really served an organisation for quite long period (Warner, 2013).

Pros of Seniority:

  1. The pros of seniority tend to create a cover line on seniority and knowledge among the experiences workers.
  2. It is a way of securing employment. Seniority ensures better working security for the company and employees.
  3. It offers extra benefits. At instance where employees maintain seniority of work, it is evident that the employee level of experience will have certain type of benefits in the work. Due to employee commitment and hard work in the company, the employee will experience benefit for seniority in the firm (Warner, 2013).

Cons of Seniority:

  1. Additional cost to the company: it may be agreed that holding much on the seniors and assume the talented employees may be somehow distressing to the company (Warner, 2013).
  2. Imbalance of competition among employees: seniors have to be encouraged by the firm to ensure there is continued provision of their prior services to the company. Equally, the firm must provide identical opportunities to the employees performing well with no need of appraisal to a person working for long with bad performance.

Two Different Steps for Preparation of First Round bargaining with Union

Preparation of negotiation needs to start with various steps that are set toward development of negotiation strategy. The process must start with review of union agendas from prior negotiations (Davis, 2013). This process will allow individual negotiating to have a look at argument made from both sides and analyse answers represented on the arguments. This is useful for any representative who was absent in prior negotiations. Another step may entail review of the core issues highlighted in the last negotiation. Part of this strategy has to do with assessment of issues and whether they will arise again (Davis, 2013).

Management must organise the data, background materials, as well as any other argument that may be directed toward supporting the proposals. In addition, management needs to prepare jagged negotiation timetable that facilitate the completion of negotiation (Davis, 2013).  

Ways in which Government is an important participant in the labour relations

Government has a role to play in determination of the ultimate course of the labour process. However, labour laws have been tilted in the favour of the unions or the management (Klingner, Nalbandian & Llorens, 2015). For long, the government has been serving as the referee in the playing ground where management and labour have been in fight for power. Legislations and court rulings have been able to shape the contest being fought and who hold the advantage of the situation.




Davis, R. S. (2013). Unionization and work attitudes: How union commitment influences public sector job satisfaction. Public Administration Review, 73(1), 74-84.

Klingner, D., Nalbandian, J., & Llorens, J. J. (2015). Public personnel management. Routledge.

Schulten, T., & Müller, T. (2015). European economic governance and its intervention in national wage development and collective bargaining. Divisive Integration: The Triumph of Failed Ideas in Europe–Revisited, 331-65.

Slater, J. (2013). Interest arbitration as alternative dispute resolution: The history from 1919 to 2011. Ohio St. J. on Disp. Resol., 28, 387.

Warner, K. (2013). The decline of unionization in the United States: some lessons from Canada. Labor Studies Journal, 38(2), 110-138.