Some of the most severe congestion problems occur at highway bottlenecks, which are defined as a portion of highway with a lower capacity (qcap) than the incoming section of highway. This reduction in capacity can originate from a number of sources, including a decrease in the number of highway lanes and reduced shoulder widths (which tend to cause drivers to slow and thus effectively reduce highway capacity). There are two general types of traffic bottlenecks—those that are recurring and those that are incident induced. Recurring bottlenecks exist where the highway itself limits capacity—for example, by a physical reduction in the number of lanes. Traffic congestion at such bottlenecks results from recurring traffic flows that exceed the vehicle capacity of the highway in the bottleneck area. In contrast, incident-induced bottlenecks occur as a result of vehicle breakdowns or accidents that effectively reduce highway capacity by restricting the through movement of traffic. Because


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incident-induced bottlenecks are unanticipated and temporary in nature, they have features that distinguish them from recurring bottlenecks, such as the possibility that the capacity resulting from an incident-induced bottleneck may change over time. For example, an accident may initially stop traffic flow completely, but as the wreckage is cleared, partial capacity (one lane open) may be provided for a period of time before full capacity is eventually restored. A feature shared by recurring and incident-induced bottlenecks is the adjustment in traffic flow that may occur as travelers choose other routes and/or different trip departure times, to avoid the bottleneck area, in response to visual information or traffic advisories.