The SPSS program can be used to generate χ2 obt , determine statistical significance, and produce measures of
association. The chi-square analysis is found via the sequence Analyze → Descriptive Statistics → Crosstabs. Let us first consider the gender and capital punishment example from earlier in the chapter. Figure 10.2 shows the dialog boxes involved in running this analysis in SPSS. Note that you must check the box labeled Chi-square in order to get a chi-square analysis; if you do not check this box, SPSS will merely give you a crosstabs table. This box is opened by clicking Statistics in the crosstabs window. By default, SPSS provides only observed frequencies in the crosstabs table. If you want expected frequencies or percentages (row or column), you can go into Cells and request them. Since both of these variables are nominal, lambda and Cramer’s V are the appropriate measures of association. Figure 10.3 shows the output for the chi-square test, and Figure 10.4 displays the measures of association.