The normal approximation to the binomial distribution tends to perform poorly when estimat- ing the probability of a small range of counts, even when the conditions are met.

Suppose we wanted to compute the probability of observing 49, 50, or 51 smokers in 400 when p = 0.15. With such a large sample, we might be tempted to apply the normal approximation and use the range 49 to 51. However, we would find that the binomial solution and the normal approximation notably differ:

Binomial: 0.0649 Normal: 0.0421

We can identify the cause of this discrepancy using Figure 4.10, which shows the areas representing the binomial probability (outlined) and normal approximation (shaded). Notice that the width of the area under the normal distribution is 0.5 units too slim on both sides of the interval.

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