The new era that has taken the entire world by surprise has been accompanied with numerous problems that face the human kind. Countless health complications have continued to face the world population. This has forced the world of scientists to intervene and offer their best contributions that may alter the situation. In the recent past, the world population has continued to swell beyond limit. This posed a lot of pressure on the available resource. In addition, countless emerging issues have cropped in thus posing challenges and opportunities. The major concern of the human kind remains the healthcare services delivery. This coins the aspect of quality of life among the populace (Bean, Vora, & Frontera, 2004).
As a matter of fact, call for transformation on nursing has remained top of the agenda as it formed the foundation footing in the socioeconomic factors, healthcare delivery development. This has called for professional issues to be integrated in all the healthcare issues. The issues of concern that have affected the promotion of healthcare and delivery of services include the demographic changes and increased diversity, the explosion of technology, shift to population based care, increased patient care complexity, impacts of health policy and regulations, the healthcare cost and the kinks of the managed care among other critical challenges (Aldana, 2001).
All the complexities have exerted unexpected pressures on the government and the education sector (Chapman, 2003). The piled pressure has mainly been intended to review the nursing education courses that accommodate the new emerging cases of ill health, and take care of the medical services to the aging population (Baun, Bernacki & Tsai, 1986).
This paper intends to explore on the current trend in society or progress of research affecting the accessibility, quality, cost or impact of health promotion and risk reduction services.
The Current Trends in Society
According to Chapman (2003), the emerging issues in the modern society triggered the scientists from all academic fields to research the effects. The issues of concern which have affected the health services delivery include the following:
- Demographic changes and increased diversity
- The robust Technology
- Economic and societal globalization
- Increased awareness of the consumers and varied therapies and genomics
- Population-Based Care existence and the increased Patient Care complexity
- The Cost of Medicare Care and the Challenges
- Medicare policy and regulations impacts
- Advances in Research and Science in Nursing
The Effects of the Trends on Health Promotion and Risk Reduction Services
Demographic Changes and Increased Diversity
In the recent past, the United States has experienced unprecedented population shift that has affected its healthcare priorities. The US health sector improved as both advanced clinical and healthcare is quite inevitable. This has since increased the average life expectancy among its citizens. The aging population has increased by almost double margin. This is attributed to the advanced Medicare by the federal government (Bates, 1998).
The existing old population in the United States poses great threat to the health and clinical care system. In addition, population diversity in the United States has different needs and demands for healthcare services. This is because they experience different diseases and ill health. This therefore calls for more comprehensive health service provisions that are aligned to their diverse beliefs and values. The mobility, access and the death rates have continuously increased among the American population. The Americans have also engaged highly on the substance abuse which has dramatically increased ailments to the victims (Department of Health and Human Services, 1991).
The increased diversity in demographic aspects has changed the American health sector. Both the ethnic and racial diversity has almost ceased as nursing institutions have admitted students of all walks of life. This has enriched the nursing education for all its inclusiveness. The students of nursing have since been employed on full time basis that has allowed them to serve the growing population.
The Robust Technology
The aspect of information technology has already impacted greatly on the American healthcare services delivery and promotion. The new technology has improved access to the Medicare for all. The doctor-patient interactive interfaces, increased data processing speed and data storage has completely improved the healthy sector. The new advent of digital technology has seen telemedicine introduced. This has thus improved service delivery among major stakeholders.
Moreover, the new technology has led to the introduction of the new and modern biosensors that are entrusted with sensing diverse ailments from different body specimen. Both health management and outcome has improved since the Medicare services can easily be accessed (Department of Health and Human Services, 1991). The introduction of Internet and electronic Medicare records has improved accessibility. Both patients and the doctor can keep close contact always. All these initiatives have improved the healthcare promotion and delivery of service.
Economic and Societal Globalization
The world has completely been reduced to a single village. In essence, globalization has improved communication, introduced e-commerce, and increased number of multinational organizations and countless political changes in the entire world. Globalization has reduced distances in the world which caused a storm in the tea cup. The spread of diseases have also increased posing great risks of transmission to the world residents. The knowledge transfer in the multicultural society tends to improve service delivery. Emerging and reemerging issues associated with globalization must be timely addressed using the experience from multicultural diversity (Bates, 1998). Therefore, globalization has caused inevitable health risks and benefits in the modern society.
Increased Awareness of the Consumers, Varied Therapies and Genomics
In the modern society, patients have displayed great information that the health practitioners have to extremely be informed. The consumers have therefore decided to be part of the decision makers in the family healthcare issues. The technology has exposed all the formerly private information to the public gallery. This has triggered the consumer involvement in almost all Medicare decisions and management. The internet and media advents have over enlightened the consumers thus take active roles in healthcare matters (Bates, 1998). Due to this, ethical practices in the healthcare have speedily been initiated as patients and other stakeholders have increased their healthcare promotion knowledge. Moreover, the gene mapping and other genomic advances have complicated health sector. New generation of ailments has been associated with the practice. The researches on therapies and genomics have continued as new drugs and diseases have since been discovered. So far, sophisticated diagnostic and therapeutic advancements have also been realized. This has increased the cost of promoting and delivering the healthcare services (Commers, 2002).
The Cost of Medicare Care and the Challenges
In most countries, the healthcare cost has continued to increase. For instance, 15 percent of the US total GNP has been allocated to the healthcare (Commers, 2002). This has attracted public debate about the US Medicare cost. The American case has been triggered by diverse factors such as cultural norms attributed to aging population, substance abuse and addiction, widening gap between the population segments. This cast has led to different proposals including managed care options by different stakeholders (Commers, 2002). The long term solvency on Medicare has elicited debates from economists and other conservatisms. Due to this continued public involvement, healthcare services delivery and promotions have been achieved. According to Bates, (1998), countless challenges have confronted the managed care options as both the public and private players have failed to show full commitment to resolve such issues with speed. The major challenge is coined in the financial front. This has since reduced the efforts for promoting the healthcare (Commers, 2002).
Medicare Policy and Regulations Impacts
Medicare services have remained an issue in the US. The federal government has initiated different policy and regulation guide of the entire health care sector. The federal government is also on the move to increase regulation on health as the expansion of both the managed care and costs increases. The government may soon ensure that the minimum costs of health services are attained by allowing the marketing forces to take center stage. This may restrain costs. Medicare program which has received public approval is that of shared responsibility. Through the state policy interventions, the quality and measures should be reinforced. All the ethical issues have also been defined in the government regulation such that those working under integrated health system should receive much economic incentives. This would probably promote the health services and delivery (Commers, 2002).
Advances in Research and Science in Nursing
The growing dynamism in health landscape has created pressure on the educators in the health practice. The nurse educators are therefore on the receiving end to integrate the new twists of events in the health sector. This has since increased research in nursing intended to improve the US‘s health (Bates, 1998). The researches have continued to improve scientific basis to serve the current patient’s needs. The federal government has also improved the nursing scholarship for students. This intention was to increase the number of health specialists to serve aging population in the US (Commers, 2002).
Healthcare is an issue that touches directly on the government position. The existing healthcare regulations and policies are normally the foundation for a better nation. Therefore, most governments go robust in the promotion of healthcare and improvement of the heath service delivery. These regulations and policy on healthcare normally draw criticisms from different people. But the government must ensure that its policies on health are given top priorities and attention. This ensures healthy nation and thus productive economy. In endeavoring to attain the healthy population, the government must beware of numerous emerging issues in the society. Some of the issues should be swiftly integrated in the healthcare sector. It should also prepare for both the opportunities and challenges. But the opportunities created by these policies should outweigh the challenges. This will ensure viable nation with healthy population.
Aldana, S.G. (2001). Financial impact of health promotion programs: A comprehensive review of the literature. Am J Health Promot. 15: 296–320.
Bates, D.W. et al. (1998). Effect of Computerized Physician Order Entry and a Team Intervention on Prevention of Serious Medication Errors. Journal of the American Medical Association, 280(15): 1311-1316.
Baun, W., Bernacki, E., Tsai, S. (1986). A preliminary investigation: Effects of a corporate fitness program on absenteeism and health care costs. J Occup Med.; 28:18–22.
Bean, J.F., Vora, A., Frontera, W.R. (2004). Benefits of exercise for community-dwelling older adults. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 85(7 Supppl 3):S31–42.
Chapman, L. (2003). Meta-evaluation of worksite health promotion economic return studies. Am J Health Promot. 6:1–16.
Commers, M. (2002). Determinants of health: theory, understanding, portrayal, policy. Dordrecht, Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Department of Health and Human Services. (1991). Healthy people 2000: National health promotion and disease prevention objectives. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office.