Pathogenesis of disease: Supplemental Reading: Outbreak of the Spanish Influenza Pandemic of 1918-1919

Questions
1. What innate properties of Influenza A viruses are the reason why individuals require annual flu vaccines?
2. An epidemic is defined as an outbreak of a contagious disease that spreads rapidly and widely. What is the difference
between an epidemic and a pandemic, and what should the Spanish influenza of 1918-1919 be classified as?
3. What type of genome alterations result in pandemic strains?
4. When was influenza virus discovered and what was known about it in 1918?
5. From where do most experts think that the influenza virus of 1918-1919 originated, and how was it passed to
humans?
6. Why did the virus become known as the “Spanish flu?” Do you think that that was an accurate name for the sickness?
7. What were the symptoms of the 1918 pandemic and what age population had the highest fatality rate?
8. Why are military bases considered “ground zero” for epidemic outbreaks?
9. What was the Sedition Act (WWI) and how did passing such an act make the 1918 flu worse?
10. What is the significance of Haskell County, Kanas in the 1918 pandemic?
11. Briefly describe the experience at Camp Devens in Massachusetts during the Fall of 1918.
12. What was the significance of the Liberty Loan Campaign during WWI, particularly Liberty Loan Parade in
Philadelphia? Did this make the flu pandemic worse?
13. How many waves of the 1918 flu were there, and which was the deadliest? Highlight when each wave occurred.
Why was there a change in the severity and mortality?
14. Briefly discuss the U.S. public health response to the 1918 pandemic. How did public health officials respond to
the 1918 pandemic?
15. Do you think that the Spanish flu’s effects on soldiers might have affected the outcome of World War I?
16. Did each country affected by the flu suffer the same death rate? If not, what probably accounted for the differences?
Did different groups in the same place suffer the same fates?
17. Discuss 2 similarities and 2 differences between the 1918 H1N1 Influenza and 2019 SARS-CoV-2.

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