Scoping Review

“To be considered for this scoping review, published studies had to meet various eligibility criteria. First, we limited our review to publications written in English as we relied entirely on our reviewers’ language skills. The academic literature portion of the scoping review exclusively focused on academic articles such as peer-reviewed journals and conference papers due to the study’s aim of mapping out current research activities. The grey literature review included reports, publications, and alerts. By implication, the review excludes publications such as blog posts, opeds, presentations, newsletters, marketing materials, correspondence, and magazine or newspaper articles”

“The review used Google Scholar (GS) to identify academic studies for review and Google’s Search Engine to identify private and public sector publications potentially eligible for review.  One of the authors (AT) performed the final and most recent search on GS and Google’s Search Engine in November 2020”

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What were the findings? Cut and paste the paragraph below that describes the findings and HIGHLIGHT the sentences that specifically show you the summary of findings:

The results indicated that there are 29 types of fraud associated with cryptocurrency.

“Academic publications most frequently referred to Ponzi schemes and (synonymous) high yield investment programmes (HYIPs). These scam types were discussed in 44.4% of the included studies. Eighteen (28.6%) publications analysed scams involving initial coin offerings (ICOs). Ten analyses (15.9%) covered phishing scams and nine (14.3%) discussed unspecified types of fraud. Seven (11.1%) studies covered pump-and-dump schemes and market manipulation. Six (9.5%) studies looked at exchange scams and five (7.9%) at scam wallet services. Four papers (4.8%) discussed each of the following types of fraud: fraudulent cryptocoins, smart contract honeypots / attacks, and mining scams. Three publications (4.8%) discussed mining malware and the same number addressed smart Ponzi schemes. Two (3.2%) publications discussed securities fraud and identity theft. Sixteen fraud categories were only mentioned in a single (1.6%) publication each.