Scale Evaluation Content Validity

Scale Evaluation Content validity: Content validity refers to the extent to

which a measure represents all facets of a given social concept. Content validity signifies that the items included in the questionnaire correctly represent the concept to be analyzed and evaluated based on logic and theory [18] rather than statistical. In this study MCS scale was validated by two experts in organizational communication field and one expert in GLCs. At this stage, two items were improved and five items were deleted as recommended by the three experts.

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Construct validity (Factor Analysis): Construct validity refers to whether a scale measures or correlates with a theorized psychological construct [18]. The EFA with Varimax rotation was used to assess the construct validity of the 20 items of the research instrument. EFA was performed to identify and confirm the underlying structure of the items. Initially the suitability for the data for factor analysis was explored.