Research paper: Adolescent Obesity in African American

Introduction

Childhood obesity is a severe medical condition that poses significant threats to health of African American adolescents and children. It develops when a child gains more weight that is above his age and height. The major contributors to childhood obesity include lack of physical exercises and irregular eating habits. Obesity leads to development of other diseases including diabetes, blood pressure and cholesterol problem. Although obesity affects individuals in all ethnic and racial populations in the United States, it is prevalent among African Americans. The prevalence of obesity among African American adolescents can be minimized through monitoring of diet appropriately and engaging in physical exercises (Witherspoon, Latta, Wang & Black, 2013).

This paper seeks to conduct an appraisal of the peer-reviewed articles that provide a description of obesity and that support the proposed solution.

Literature Sources

  1. Alio, A. P., Salihu, H. M., Berrings, T. J., Gramling, M. D., Burton, J. A., Gayles, T. A., & Jackson, T. R. (2006). Obesity research and the forgotten African American child. Ethnicity & disease, 16(2), 569-575.
  2. This article describes obesity as a nutritional problem that affects children, adolescents and adults in the United States.
  3. The article provides statistical information reveals that obesity in African Americans is high in all age groups. It shows that 20.55 of the African Americans between 6-19 years are overweight.
  • The article provides rate of occurrence of obesity is rampant among the African American population and this is due to failure of researchers to conduct adequate research on this community in order to find solutions to address the problem.
  1. The article supports my proposed solution
  2. Allen, D., Belcher, H. M., Young, A., Gibson, L. W., Colantuoni, E., & Trent, M. (2016). BMI, Body Image, Emotional Well-Being and Weight-Control Behaviors in Urban African American Adolescents. International journal of child health and nutrition, 5(3), 55.

i.            The article describes obesity as a health disparity that affects African American adolescents and might follow them into adulthood.

ii.            The article provides statistical information indicates that there is limited data on the public health interventions on emotional-wellbeing, body image and weight control behaviors.

iii.            The article explains that there is lack of adequate data thus reflects on the gravity of obesity among African American populations.

iv.            The article points out that obesity contributes to depression thus affecting emotional-well being of the general population.

v.            The article supports my proposed change.

  1. Anyoha, S. N., & Nneka, S. (2015). A Childhood Obesity Intervention For African American and Latino Children. University of Massachusetts. Retrieved on 4th October 2016 from: http://scholarworks.umass.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1050&context=nursing_dnp_capstone

 

  1. The article describes obesity as a huge public health epidemic affecting children in the United States.
  2. The article provides data information shows that 20.2% of the African American children aged between 2-19 years are obese.
  • The article reveals that prevalence of obesity in children and adolescents has resulted in development of co-morbidities such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases in the general population.
  1. The article supports my proposed change.
  2. Balvanz, P., Dodgen, L., Quinn, J., Holloway, T., Hudspeth, S., & Eng, E. (2016). From Voice to Choice: African American Youth Examine Childhood Obesity in Rural North Carolina. Progress in Community Health Partnerships: Research, Education, and Action, 10(2), 293-303.
  3. This article describes obesity as a prominent health issue that is prevalence especially among the African American females.
  4. The article did not provide statistical information however, the results finding show that obesity is increasing at a higher rate within the African American population.
  • The article explains that the incidences of occurrence of obesity among are at significantly higher rates among the African American population.
  1. The article supports my change.
  2. Barr‐Anderson, D. J., Adams‐Wynn, A. W., DiSantis, K. I., & Kumanyika, S. (2013). Family‐focused physical activity, diet and obesity interventions in African–American girls: a systematic review. Obesity reviews, 14(1), 29-51.
  3. The article describes obesity as a disparity that occurs among African American girls between the ages of 5 and 18 years.
  4. The article provides statistical information indicates that in 2007-2008, about 26% of the African American girls aged between 6 and 19 years were obese.
  • The article indicates that the rate of occurrence of obesity had doubled in prevalence compared to white girls.
  1. The article suggests that obesity among African American girls can be addressed through family intervention where they should encourage their children to take part in physical activities.
  2. The article provides an intervention strategy that supports my proposed view.
  3. Carcone, A. I., Barton, E., Eggly, S., Hartlieb, K. E. B., Thominet, L., & Naar, S. (2016). Exploring ambivalence in motivational interviewing with obese African American adolescents and their caregivers: A mixed methods analysis. Patient education and counseling.
  4. The article describes obesity that affects health conditions and is prevalent among African American adolescents.
  5. The article does not provide statistical information however; results findings showed that the rate of obesity and overweight is high among African American adolescents.
  • The article explains that the morbidity of obesity among African American adolescents has resulted in overweight and increased depression that has affected their health condition.
  1. The article supports my change.
  2. Dulin-Keita, A., Thind, H. K., Affuso, O., & Baskin, M. L. (2013). The associations of perceived neighborhood disorder and physical activity with obesity among African American adolescents. BMC public health, 13(1), 1.
  3. The article describes obesity as a health problem associated with neighborhood. It states that people living in disordered neighborhoods significantly are affected by obesity status.
  4. The article provides statistical information, which indicates that the adolescent obesity status of African Americans include (1= normal weight, 2=overweight and 3=obese).
  • The article states that the rate of occurrence of adolescent obesity is high among adolescents in disordered neighborhoods due to poorer diet quality and lack of physical exercises.
  1. The article supports my proposed change.
  2. Jacques-Tiura, A. J., Carcone, A. I., Naar, S., Hartlieb, K. B., Albrecht, T. L., & Barton, E. (2016). Building Motivation in African American Caregivers of Adolescents With Obesity: Application of Sequential Analysis. Journal of pediatric psychology, jsw044.
  3. This article describes obesity as a weight problem affecting African Americans adolescents.
  4. The article provides statistical information indicating that the study involved a sample of 37 caregivers of African American adolescents between 12-16 years.
  • The article explains that the incidences of obesity and overweight are identifiable among the general population.
  1. The article support my proposed resolution.
  2. Hasson, R. E., Adam, T. C., Pearson, J., Davis, J. N., Spruijt-Metz, D., & Goran, M. I. (2013). Sociocultural and socioeconomic influences on type 2 diabetes risk in overweight/obese African-American and Latino-American children and adolescents. Journal of obesity, 2013.
  3. The article describes obesity as a significant health problem affecting African American children that has resulted in prevalence of type 2 diabetes.
  4. The article provides data information reveal that the incidence rates for type 2 diabetes among African American children is three times higher than other racial or ethnic populations. 29.3% of the African-American children and 44.3% of the African-American adolescents suffer from type 2 diabetes.
  • The article explains the morbidity of obesity which includes development of type 2 diabetes that are facilitated by socio-cultural and socio-economic factors.
  1. The article’s suggested resolution supports my proposed view.
  2. Lee, S., McGhee, L., Horner, K., Venezia, K., Reilly, S., Conti, C., & Arslanian, S. (2015). Post-Exercise Heart Rate Recovery and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Obese African-American versus White Adolescents: 3377 Board# 138 May 30, 8: 00 AM-9: 30 AM. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 47(5S), 910-911.

i.            This article describes obesity as a huge health condition affecting African American adolescents. This article provides statistical information indicates that the prevalence of obesity is high among African American adolescents.

ii.            The article explains the morbidity of obesity that includes cardiovascular health problems.

iii.            The article supports my proposed change.

11.  Naar-King, S., Ellis, D. A., Idalski Carcone, A., Templin, T., Jacques-Tiura, A. J., Brogan Hartlieb, K., … & Jen, K. L. C. (2015). Sequential multiple assignment randomized trial (SMART) to construct weight loss interventions for African American adolescents. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 1-14.

i.            This article describes as a health epidemic affecting African American adolescents.

ii.            The article did not provide statistical information.

iii.            This article has no example(s) of morbidity, mortality, and rate of incidence or rate of occurrence in the general population.

iv.            The article indicates that obesity in this population can be addressed through developing an adaptive behavioral treatment. The behavioral treatment supports my proposed solution.

  1. Nwobu, C. O., & Johnson, C. C. (2007). Targeting obesity to reduce the risk for type 2 diabetes and other co-morbidities in African American youth: a review of the literature and recommendations for prevention. Diabetes and Vascular Disease Research, 4(4), 311-319.
  2. This article describes obesity as an epidemic that is prevalent among the African American youths. Statistical information indicates that about 20% of the minority youths of African Americans are affected by obesity.
  3. The article has data that shows the prevalence of obesity among the African American youths is demonstrated by the increased risk of co-morbidities associated with obesity such as type 2 diabetes.
  • The article points out that implementing effective intervention strategy would contribute towards elevating the risk factors of obesity such as physical activities and proper diet.
  1. This strategies support my proposed solution.
  2. O’Reilly, G. A., Belcher, B. R., Davis, J. N., Martinez, L. T., Huh, J., Antunez‐Castillo, L., … & Spruijt‐Metz, D. (2015). Effects of high‐sugar and high‐fiber meals on physical activity behaviors in Latino and African American adolescents. Obesity, 23(9), 1886-1894.

i.            The article describes obesity as an effect of consuming meals with either high sugar/low fiber or low-sugar/higher fiber among African American obesity.

ii.            The article provides data information on obesity among African American adolescent was provided to indicate its prevalence among this population.

iii.            This article has no example(s) of morbidity, mortality, and rate of incidence or rate of occurrence in the general population.

  1. The article suggests that obesity prevalence among African American adolescents can be addressed through engaging in physical activities and taking proper diets. This supports my proposed solution to obesity where engaging in physical activities will help burn the high sugar content in the body. Proper diet would help prevent adolescents from eating foods with high sugar content
  2. Shin, A., Surkan, P. J., Coutinho, A. J., Suratkar, S. R., Campbell, R. K., Rowan, M., … & Gittelsohn, J. (2015). Impact of Baltimore Healthy Eating Zones An Environmental Intervention to Improve Diet Among African American Youth. Health Education & Behavior, 42(1 suppl), 97S-105S.

i.            The article describes obesity as a nutritional problem that causes adverse health effects on African American youths.

ii.            The article provides statistical information indicate that the sample population chosen for the study of obese African American youths indicated a reduction of a percentile of (p=.04) body mass index. This shows the gravity of obesity and its effects among African American populations.

iii.            The article explains the incidence of occurrence of obesity is rampant among the African American adolescents.

iv.            The article supports my proposed solution.

  1. Tate, N. H., Dillaway, H. E., Yarandi, H. N., Jones, L. M., & Wilson, F. L. (2015). An examination of eating behaviors, physical activity, and obesity in African American adolescents: gender, socioeconomic status, and residential status differences. Journal of Pediatric Health Care, 29(3), 243-254.
  2. The article describes obesity as a health condition that is prevalent among the African American population that is contributed by heterogeneity differences such as socioeconomic status.

ii.            The article indicates that statistical data was obtained from the sample population of 145 African American adolescents between 15 and 17 year old.

iii.            The rate of occurrence of obesity in African American adolescents is increasing and it is higher compared to the white adolescents’ counterparts in the general population.

iv.            The article supports my proposed solution.

Conclusion

The growing problem of obesity among African American adolescents has become an issue of concern. Factors such as socio-cultural and socio-economic factors are the major aspects contributing to increased development of risk factors that lead to obesity. Obesity can be reduced through encouraging participation on physical activities and proper monitoring of diet to promote healthy feeding habits.

 

References

Alio, A. P., Salihu, H. M., Berrings, T. J., Gramling, M. D., Burton, J. A., Gayles, T. A., & Jackson, T. R. (2006). Obesity research and the forgotten African American child. Ethnicity & disease, 16(2), 569-575.

Allen, D., Belcher, H. M., Young, A., Gibson, L. W., Colantuoni, E., & Trent, M. (2016). BMI, Body Image, Emotional Well-Being and Weight-Control Behaviors in Urban African American Adolescents. International journal of child health and nutrition, 5(3), 55.

Anyoha, S. N., & Nneka, S. (2015). A Childhood Obesity Intervention For African American and Latino Children. University of Massachusetts. Retrieved on 4th October 2016 from: http://scholarworks.umass.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1050&context=nursing_dnp_capstone

Balvanz, P., Dodgen, L., Quinn, J., Holloway, T., Hudspeth, S., & Eng, E. (2016). From Voice to Choice: African American Youth Examine Childhood Obesity in Rural North Carolina. Progress in Community Health Partnerships: Research, Education, and Action, 10(2), 293-303.

Barr‐Anderson, D. J., Adams‐Wynn, A. W., DiSantis, K. I., & Kumanyika, S. (2013). Family‐focused physical activity, diet and obesity interventions in African–American girls: a systematic review. Obesity reviews, 14(1), 29-51.

Carcone, A. I., Barton, E., Eggly, S., Hartlieb, K. E. B., Thominet, L., & Naar, S. (2016). Exploring ambivalence in motivational interviewing with obese African American adolescents and their caregivers: A mixed methods analysis. Patient education and counseling.

Dulin-Keita, A., Thind, H. K., Affuso, O., & Baskin, M. L. (2013). The associations of perceived neighborhood disorder and physical activity with obesity among African American adolescents. BMC public health, 13(1), 1.

Jacques-Tiura, A. J., Carcone, A. I., Naar, S., Hartlieb, K. B., Albrecht, T. L., & Barton, E. (2016). Building Motivation in African American Caregivers of Adolescents With Obesity: Application of Sequential Analysis. Journal of pediatric psychology, jsw044.

Hasson, R. E., Adam, T. C., Pearson, J., Davis, J. N., Spruijt-Metz, D., & Goran, M. I. (2013). Sociocultural and socioeconomic influences on type 2 diabetes risk in overweight/obese African-American and Latino-American children and adolescents. Journal of obesity, 2013.

Lee, S., McGhee, L., Horner, K., Venezia, K., Reilly, S., Conti, C., & Arslanian, S. (2015). Post-Exercise Heart Rate Recovery and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Obese African-American versus White Adolescents: 3377 Board# 138 May 30, 8: 00 AM-9: 30 AM. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 47(5S), 910-911.

Naar-King, S., Ellis, D. A., Idalski Carcone, A., Templin, T., Jacques-Tiura, A. J., Brogan Hartlieb, K., … & Jen, K. L. C. (2015). Sequential multiple assignment randomized trial (SMART) to construct weight loss interventions for African American adolescents. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 1-14.

Nwobu, C. O., & Johnson, C. C. (2007). Targeting obesity to reduce the risk for type 2 diabetes and other co-morbidities in African American youth: a review of the literature and recommendations for prevention. Diabetes and Vascular Disease Research, 4(4), 311-319.

O’Reilly, G. A., Belcher, B. R., Davis, J. N., Martinez, L. T., Huh, J., Antunez‐Castillo, L., … & Spruijt‐Metz, D. (2015). Effects of high‐sugar and high‐fiber meals on physical activity behaviors in Latino and African American adolescents. Obesity, 23(9), 1886-1894.

Shin, A., Surkan, P. J., Coutinho, A. J., Suratkar, S. R., Campbell, R. K., Rowan, M., … & Gittelsohn, J. (2015). Impact of Baltimore Healthy Eating Zones An Environmental Intervention to Improve Diet Among African American Youth. Health Education & Behavior, 42(1 suppl), 97S-105S.

Tate, N. H., Dillaway, H. E., Yarandi, H. N., Jones, L. M., & Wilson, F. L. (2015). An examination of eating behaviors, physical activity, and obesity in African American adolescents: gender, socioeconomic status, and residential status differences. Journal of Pediatric Health Care, 29(3), 243-254.

Witherspoon, D., Latta, L., Wang, Y., & Black, M. M. (2013). Do depression, self-esteem, body-esteem, and eating attitudes vary by BMI among African American adolescents?. Journal of pediatric psychology, 38(10), 1112-1120.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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