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Replies For Peers. Need ONE Response Per Each Discussion Total 2 Responses. Attached Are The Discussions APA Format.One Reference Per Each Discussion Less Than 5 Years

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1-Discuss advantages and disadvantages of dietary supplements, including adverse reactions, drug-drug interactions, drug-food interactions, and specific laboratory issues that may arise from using these products.

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Normally, you should be able to get all the nutrients you need from a diet. However, supplements can provide you with extra nutrients when your diet is lacking or certain health conditions (such as cancer, diabetes, or chronic diarrhea) trigger a deficiency. For example, large doses of B3 (niacin) can help raise “good” high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol,while folic acid has long been used to reduce the risk of a birth defect called spina bifida.Antioxidants, such as vitamin C and vitamin E, may reduce the toxic effect of chemotherapy drugs (allowing patients to tolerate larger doses of chemo). The FDA does maintain a list of tainted or potentially harmful products marketed as dietary supplements. The worst offenders are usually weight loss aids, “natural” sexual enhancement pills, and supplements targeted at bodybuilders. Among some the harmful interactions or dosing concerns: Vitamin K can reduce the effectiveness of blood thinners like Coumadin (warfarin).

Vitamin E can increase the action of blood thinners, leading to easy bruising and nosebleeds.

St. John’s wort can accelerate the breakdown of many drugs, including antidepressants and birth control pills, thereby reducing their effectiveness.

Food can increase or decrease the absorption of a drug. Absorbing less than the intended dose may decrease the effect of the drug. Absorbing more than the intended dose increases the chance for an overdose effect.

Example: Dietary calcium can bind to the antibiotic tetracycline. As a result, the body does not absorb the amount of antibiotic intended.


2- Discuss the position of the FDA and other governmental agencies on over the counter herbal supplements. Support your post with at least 2 evidenced-based guidelines published within the last 5 years.


Even though the FDA has made the determination that OTC drugs are safe enough for self-diagnosis, many patients fail to mention that they are taking OTC medications when they list their medications to their primary care physician. Always tell your doctor about any medication you are taking. This is best way to avoid drug injury. Very frequently patients ignore this vital advice and cause organ damage because their doctor is unaware of other meds they are on.OTC medications are capable of interacting with other medications that your physician has prescribed, which underscores the importance of telling your doctor all the drugs you are taking so he will know what to avoid. Many OTC drugs can interact with drugs you are already on. Alcohol, for example, will intensify the sedative properties of cough and cold medications or antihistamines. It is very important to read the label when using OTC drugs. Remember, you are self-diagnosing when taking OTC drugs, so you need to act as your own drug injury safeguard.




Bernstein, M., & Munoz, N. (2016). Nutrition for the Older Adult, 2nd ed., Jones and Bartlett Publishers, Sudbury, MA.

NCCIH. (2021, July ). Herb-Drug Interactions . Retrieved from National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health :

















Orestes V. Sacerio Garcia


  1. Discuss advantages and disadvantages of dietary supplements, including adverse reactions, drug-drug interactions, drug-food interactions, and specific laboratory issues that may arise from using these products.

As dietary supplements come in a variety of forms, including tablets, capsules, gummies, and powders, as well as drinks and energy bar. Popular supplements include vitamins D and B12; minerals like calcium and iron; herbs such as echinacea and garlic; and products like glucosamine, probiotics, and fish oils. Some of the advantages of the dietary supplements are help you get adequate amounts of essential nutrients if you don’t eat a nutritious variety of foods. For example: Calcium and vitamin D help keep bones strong and reduce bone loss. Folic acid decreases the risk of certain birth defects. Omega-3 fatty acids from fish oils might help some people with heart disease. A combination of vitamins C and E, zinc, copper, lutein, and zeaxanthin (known as AREDS) may slow down further vision loss in people with age-related macular degeneration (AMD).

However, supplements can’t take the place of the variety of foods that are important to a healthy diet. The effect of drug on a person may be different than expected because that drug interacts with another drug the person is taking (drug-drug interaction), food, beverages, dietary supplements the person is consuming (drug-nutrient/food interaction) or another disease the person has (drug-disease interaction). A drug interaction is a situation, in which a substance affects the activity of a drug, the effects are increased or decreased, or they produce a new effect that neither produces on its own. These interactions may occur out of accidental misuse or due to lack of knowledge about the active ingredients involved in the relevant substances.

Disadvantages of drug-interactions we found examples as Vitamin K can reduce the ability of the blood thinner warfarin to prevent blood from clotting. St. John’s wort can speed the breakdown of many medicines and reduce their effectiveness (including some antidepressants, birth control pills, heart medications, anti-HIV medications, and transplant drugs). Antioxidant supplements, such as vitamins C and E, might reduce the effectiveness of some types of cancer chemotherapy.


  1. Discuss the position of the FDA and other governmental agencies on over the counter herbal supplements. Support your post with at least 2 evidenced-based guidelines published within the last 5 years.

The FDA is the federal agency that oversees both supplements and medicines, but the FDA regulations for dietary supplements are different from those for prescription or over-the-counter medicines. Medicines must be approved by the FDA before they can be sold or marketed. Supplements do not require this approval. Supplement companies are responsible for having evidence that their products are safe, and the label claims are truthful and not misleading. However, as long as the product does not contain a “new dietary ingredient” (one introduced since October 15, 1994), the company does not have to provide this safety evidence to the FDA before the product is marketed.

Dietary supplement labels may include certain types of health-related claims. Manufacturers are permitted to say, for example, that a supplement promotes health or supports a body function (like immunity or heart health). These claims must be followed by the words, “This statement has not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.” Manufacturers must follow good manufacturing practices (GMPs) to ensure the identity, purity, strength, and composition of their products. If the FDA finds a dietary supplement to be unsafe, it may remove the product from the marketplace or ask the manufacturer to voluntarily recall the product.

The FDA monitors the marketplace for potential illegal products that may be unsafe or make false or misleading claims. The Federal Trade Commission, which monitors product advertising, also requires information about a supplement product to be truthful and not misleading. The federal government can take legal action against companies and websites that sell dietary supplements when the companies make false or deceptive statements about their products, if they promote them as treatments or cures for diseases, or if their products are unsafe.


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2013). Managing drug interactions in the treatment of HIV-related tuberculosis. Retrieved from

Dowell, D., Haegerich, T. M., & Chou, R. (2016). CDC guideline for prescribing opioids for chronic pain – United States, 2016. Journal of the American Medical Association, 315(15), 1624-1645.

U.S. Food and Drug Administration. (2018). Framework for FDA’s. Real-World Evidence Program. Retrieved from