Prisoner’s dilemma A type of dilemma in which one party must make either cooperative or competitive moves in rela- tion to another party. The dilemma is typically designed so that the competitive move appears to be in one’s self- interest, but if both sides make this move, both suffer more than if both had cooperated.
Private conformity The change of beliefs that occurs when a person privately accepts the position taken by others.
Private self-consciousness A personality characteristic of individuals who are introspective, often attending to their own inner states.
Proactive aggression Aggressive behavior whereby harm is inflicted as a means to a desired end (also called instru- mental aggression).