PHYSIOLOGY AND ANATOMY ASSIGNMENT

PLEASE ONLY ANSWER A OR B OR C OR D FROM QUESTION 1 TO 34 YOU DON’T NEED TO COPY COPY THE QUESTIONS ITSELF. For example ;Qustion 1 = A . Question. This help reduce the number of the world count pls.

ANSWER A OR B OR C OR D BIGGINNING FROM BELOW QUESTION 1 HERE TO 34 BELOW

“The changes which occur when the body’s temperature moves away from normal levels, and mechanisms are enacted which try and return the temperature to its original level.”

A – True

B – False

 (1 Mark)

A – DNA algorithm

B – Part of cellular respiration

C – Cellular organelles

D – The cell membrane

(1 Mark)

A – Protein catalytic conversion

B – Formation of amino acids from RNA

C – Transcription of DNA to RNA

D – Translation of DNA

(1 Mark)

  • Which one of the following allows the passing of chemical or electrical messages from one neurone to another?

A – Gates of Ranvier

B – Myelin Sheath

C – Dendrites

D – Synapse

                                                                                                (1 Mark)

  • Which one of the following is the type of immunity that the skin is a part of?

A – Specific Immunity

B – Mechanical barrier

C – Humoral immunity

D – Innate immunity

(1 Mark)

  • What describes the movement of a solute from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration through a selectively permeable membrane?

A – Active transport

B – Diffusion

C – Passive transport

D – Osmosis

 (1 Mark)

  • What is best described as an extreme, often life threatening allergic reaction to an antigen, to which the body has become hypersensitive?

A – Cardiac shock

B – Anaphylactic shock

C – Hypovolaemic shock

D – Immune shock

(1 Mark)

A – the emulsification of lipid aggregates

B – the production of pancreatic enzymes

C – the metabolism of drugs

D – the concentration and storage of bile

(1 Mark)

  • Is the following statement true or false?

“The liver is responsible for the production of over 90% of the cholesterol found in the human body.”

A – True

B – False

                                                                                                                        (1 Mark)

Please continue to next page…

  1. Complete the labels on the following diagram and write your answers below using the corresponding letters:
D  
A  
B  
C  
Right secondary bronchus  
Right primary bronchus  
Vertebral column  
Base of left lung  
Pharynx  
Left primary bronchus  
Epiglottis  
Inferior Vena Cava  
Visceral pleura  
Parietal pleura  
Apex of right lung  
Nasal cavity  

A –

B –

C –

D –

 (4 Marks – 1 mark per label)

A – Adressin cells

B – Neutrophils

C – Natural Killer Cells

D – T-cells and B-cells

(1 Mark)

  1. Which part of the nervous system would be associated with urination and salivation?

A – Autonomic Nervous System – Sympathetic Division

B – Autonomic Nervous System – Parasympathetic Division

C – Enteric Nervous System

D – Autonomic Nervous System – De-glustation Division

(1 Mark)

  1. The part of the nervous system which is responsible for the regulation of breathing, heart and blood vessel function, digestion and swallowing is what?

A – Pons

B – Cerebellum

C – Cerebral Cortex

D – Medulla Oblongata

(1 Mark)

  1. Which one of the following statements is true:

A – An organism with at least one recessive allele never displays the effect of a dominant allele

B – An organism with at least one recessive allele will display the effect of the recessive allele

C – A dominant allele will only be expressed when paired with another dominant allele

D – A recessive allele can only be expressed when paired with another recessive allele

 (1 Mark)

  1. Epigenetics is ….?

A – the study of translation and the change of the Thymine base to “U”

B – the study of autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive genes

C – the study of changes in organisms caused by modification of the expression of genes, rather than alteration of the actual genetic code

D – the ACT and G in relation to cancer formation

(1 Mark)

  1. What is the following statement describing?

“The immunity that we develop in response to a particular pathogen”

  1. Specific Immunity
  2. Mechanical barrier
  3. Humoral immunity
  4. Innate immunity

 (1 Mark)

  1. Which one of the following does NOT contribute to glucose regulation?

A – Glucagon

B – Muscle Cells

C – Insulin

D – Angiotensin

(1 Mark)

  1. In homeostasis, what do the effectors do?

A – Sense internal and external changes and provide information to the control centre

B – Determine what the normal blood pressure and temperature should be and send a message

C – Sense changes in external environments and effect a change response

D – Once information has been received they cause response to take place in the body’s internal environment which will return the body to normal values

(1 Mark)

  1.  Bone, adipose and cartilage are best described as what?
  1. Nervous tissue
  2. Fibrous tissue
  3. Cellular organelles
  4. Connective tissue

(1 Mark)

Please continue to next page…

  • Insert the Four missing labels from the diagram of the heart (internal) below using the corresponding numbers below:
Text Box: Right ventricle
Text Box: Right atrium
Text Box: Left ventricle
Text Box: Left atrium
Left pulmonary veins  
C  
B  
D  
Papillary muscle with chordae tendineae  
Aorta  
Right atrioventricular valve  
Left atrioventricular valve  
Pulmonary artery  
Left pulmonary artery  
Inferior vena cava  
Pulmonary valve  
A  
Right pulmonary artery  
Right pulmonary veins  

A –

B –

C –

D –

Total 4 Marks (1 mark for each correct answer)

Please continue to next page…

  • Pulmonary veins take deoxygenated blood away from the heart under low pressure.
  1. True
  2. False

(1 Mark)

  • Which one of the following is not part of the inflammatory response?

A – Histamine released

B – Phagocytes consume pathogens and cell debris

C – Prostaglandins released

D – Capillaries contract

(1 Mark)

  • Saliva contains the enzyme amylase. What is the main role of amylase in the process of digestion?
  1. Amylase works with mucous to aid swallowing.
  2. Amylase is the central component of chyme.
  3. Amylase stimulates the secretion of acid to aid digestion
  4. Amylase breaks down starch into simple sugars such as maltose.

(1 Mark)

  • Anti-diuretic hormone (ADH) is released when?

A – In response to water retention

B – When you become pyrexic

C – If you are constipated

D – When you become dehydrated                                          

(1 Mark)

  • Eric is 60 years old. He has been unemployed since being made redundant from the financial industry in London. He has also experienced the bereavement of his partner in the last year. He has attended your GP surgery stating that he is feeling very low in mood, and has no energy.  He is living alone. Having a poor level of exercise, high alcohol consumption and a poor diet, which includes a high level of saturated fat and sugar, has been the normal for many years whilst working in London.   

You undertake his blood pressure and the reading is 165 /98 mmHg.

HIGHLIGHT the statement that best describes Eric’s blood pressurE:

A – Eric has a diastolic blood pressure of 165

B – Eric has a systolic blood pressure of 98

C – Eric has a systolic blood pressure of 165

D – Eric has a diastolic blood pressure of 165

(1 Mark)

  • Read Eric’s scenario carefully for question 25. What may be the psychosocial factors affecting his mood?

A – His low blood pressure

B – His bereavement and accommodation situation

C – His high sugar intake

D – His age                                                                                                  

(1 Mark)

  • What are the hormones that may be involved in Eric’s stress response in relation to the scenario in question 25?

A – Cortisol and Thyroxine

B – Cortisol and Adrenaline

C – ADH and renin

D – Erythropoietin and T4                                                                                  

(1 Mark)

  • What are the potentially controllable risk factors that may be affecting Eric’s cardiovascular health?

A – Family history, stress and high sugar diet

B – His raised pulse

C – Stress, mood and family history                                                                 

D – Stress and Alcohol consumption

(1 Mark)

Miss Chandra is 35 years old. She has been admitted following a road traffic collision and has a serious arm wound that is still bleeding. She has no other health problems.  Below is a picture of her observations:

110  
 
28  
90%  
37.9  
45  
86  

  • What is the significance of Miss Chandra’s blood pressure and pulse? Please HIGHLIGHT the statement that best fits the response:

A – Her blood pressure is normal but her pulse rate is high, this indicates she is anxious

B – Her blood pressure and pulse are both raised indicating she is responding to her situation in a fight or flight response

C – Her blood pressure is low and her pulse rate is high indicating she may have hypovolaemic shock

D – Her blood pressure is low and her pulse is low indicating anaphylactic shock

(1 Mark)

  • Miss Chandra has an oxygen saturation of 90%. Why might this be? Please HIGHLIGHT the statement that best fits the response:

A – Low circulatory blood volume causing a reduction in respiratory rate

B – Increased respiratory rate causing an increase in the pulse rate

C – Increased respiratory rate causing a decrease in the blood pressure

D – Low circulatory blood volume causing a reduction in circulatory oxygen

                                                                                                                        (1 Mark)

  • Danielle is a 21 year old who is currently out of work. She lives alone in a small rented flat. She has been experiencing psychotic symptoms for approximately 6 months. Danielle has a history of smoking cannabis. Her symptoms include hearing voices and also delusional beliefs about other people spying on her. Her mother Jane has been diagnosed with schizophrenia in the past. Danielle also has had Asthma since childhood.  As a child, Danielle and her family lived in substandard accommodation due to their poor family income. This caused significant stress to the family.

What aspect of this scenario is mostly related to health inequalities?

A – The familial link associated with schizophrenia

B – Danielle only being diagnosed for six months

C – Danielle using recreational drugs

D – Danielle growing up in substandard accommodation

                        (1 Mark)

  •  If the nursing team were to initially assess Danielle, which of the following statements best describes an ideal approach for them to use to understand her condition?

A – The nursing team would primarily explore the use of medication to cure her of her symptoms.

B – The nursing team would assess Danielle within a model which would consider complex social, biological and psychological systems.

(1 Mark)

  • Consider the above scenario involving Danielle in relation to the stress-vulnerability model. Which one of the following two statements is related to this model?

A – Danielle is obviously stressed. Because of this stress, raised levels of adrenaline and cortisol in particular have possibly caused schizophrenia

B – Danielle possibly has a genetic disposition to schizophrenia. Life stressors and other psycho-social factors have possibly contributed to the development of the disease

                                                                                                                        (1 Mark)

  • “No Health without Mental Health” (DoH, 2011) discusses the importance of promoting mental health as much as physical health. Which of the following statements best represents this ideal?

A – Health equality

B – Parity of esteem

C – Freedom of choice

D – Discrimination                                                                                      (1 Mark)

TO HERE. A OR B OR C OR D ANSWERS STOPS HERE.

FROM HERE, QUESTION 1 TO 12, PLEASE PUT YOUR ANSWERS ON THE BOXES. PLEASE BE ADVICED THAT THIS IS WHERE YOU NEED TO USE UPTO 1500 WORDS

Short Answer Questions (60 Marks total)

Please write your answer in the space / lines provided. Please review the marks allocated to each question, for example if there is a 5 mark question we will be looking at 5 pieces of information etc. As a rough guidance a four mark question we would be expecting 100- 150 words, for a 8 mark question 200-250 words. Please do ensure that you read the question carefully. Some of you may choose to use bullet points to answer the short answer questions as you may find this easier to demonstrate your knowledge.

  1. Text Box: Please write your answer here…..


Using correct terminology, analyse the role of neurotransmitters in neuronal transmission.

(4 Marks)

  • Text Box: Please write your answer here…..


Using gaseous exchange in the lung as an example, explain what diffusion is.

(4 Marks)

  • Text Box: Please write your answer here…..


 Describe what systolic and diastolic blood pressure is.

(4 Marks)

  • Text Box: Please write your answer here…..


 Discuss the difference between internal and external respiration.

(4 Marks)

Image result for PQRST
  • With reference to the heart, explain what the P, Q, R, S, T are.
Text Box: Please write your answer here…..

 (4 Marks)

  • Critically analyse why adopting a biopsychosocial approach may pose a challenge in nursing?
Text Box: Please write your answer here…..
  • Marks)
  • Critically evaluate two benefits to adopting the holistic approach in caring for people.
  • Text Box: Please write your answer here…..

Marks)
  • Put the following statements in the correct order in relation the body’s response to high glucose levels:

Insulin released by pancreas, stimulates glucose uptake by blood, lowered blood sugar level, blood sugar raises

1 – ______________________

2 – ______________________

3 – ______________________

4 – ______________________

(2 Marks – 0.5 marks for each correct answer)

  • Jocelle is a service user who has type 2 diabetes which is not well controlled and she also suffers with depression. You are using a biopsychosocial model of health

A – What information might you need to know from Jocelle and explain the rationale as to why the information is required?

                                             

(5 marks)

B – What health promotional advice might you want to provide to Jocelle and provide a rationale as to why?

                                                                                         

(8 Marks)

  1. Individuals who live in the most deprived areas and are within the lower social classes are more likely to experience poor health and lower life expectancy (die younger). Critically evaluate some of the reasons why this is the case.
Text Box: Please write your answer here…..

(10 marks)

  1. Using the biopsychosocial model identify three factors that might affect the mental health of an individual and briefly describe the impact that they might have.
Factor 1:     
Impact:         
Factor 2:     
Impact:         
Factor 3:     
Impact:         

(3 Marks)

  1. Identify two factors that may influence a person with a respiratory condition that might affect their health and briefly describe the impact that they might have.
Factor 1:     
Impact:         
Factor 2:     
Impact:         

(2 Marks)