Pathogenesis of disease

Paper Components
The following are components that must be included in the paper. Below is a suggested order of content – the level
of detail/length will vary for each organism. The paper should be written as a formal scientific paper – do not use
headings or write in the first person. You may include graphs, charts, and other visual aids to enhance the brief, but
are not required. All tables and figures must have a reference.

Title Page:
• Title: Short and informative
• Course Title, Student Name, Instructor Name, Date

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Introduction: Brief Outbreak Summary:
• Who, What, Where, When, Why, & How?

Microbe Review:
• Microbial class and structure
• Virulence factors
• Reservoirs – Natural and intermediate host
• Emerging vs. Re-emerging infectious disease

Microbial Disease Review
• Disease cycle for outbreak organism – incubation, prodromal, illness, decline, and recovery; disease
• Host immune response
• Mode of transmission
• Infectivity (Ro)
• Disease frequency and relevant statistics – incidence and prevalence (US and global levels)
• Method(s) of identification
• Treatment and prevention

Outbreak Investigation Summary
• Review index case through outbreak resolution
• Outbreak source
• How was the outbreak identified — passive vs. active surveillance
• Case definitions – probable vs. confirmed
• Number of individuals affected (epi curve if available)
• Geographic location
• Public health intervention – actions taken to mitigate further spread (treatment and
control measures; system or individual)
• Why did the outbreak end – no more susceptible individuals, no more contaminated sources, etc.

Factors Responsible / Contributed to the Outbreak & Area Impact
• Human behavior or cultural practices
• Environmental factors
• Impact of the disease outbreak – cultural, economic, etc.

• Could this outbreak have been prevented?
• If yes, explain procedures, policies, etc. in place that prevent
• If no, what can we do at the public health level to prevent in the future

Tables and Figures Page (Optional) – not included in total page count
• Distribution maps, epi curves, organism structure images, etc.
• Must include citation if not self-generated
• Must reference to the table and/or figure in the body of the review

Works Cited Page – not included in total page count
• Compile references on a separate page in APA format
• In-text citations required for each major section
• Minimum of 7 references
*Review details about citations below

Citations within scientific publications are critical as research is evidence based and references will always be
checked. It is important to utilize valuable resources, such as the CDC and WHO websites and the course textbook.
Avoid using Wikipedia and blogs as this information is not always fact checked. Students must utilize a minimum
of 7 legitimate, peer-reviewed references.

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