Kelrnan tried to pursue the matter stated that he believes “not X.” If no factors further. He reasoned that if the person is other than his private opinion are considered, it induced to make an overt statement contrary would follow, at least in our culture, that if to his private opinion by the offer of some he believes “X” he would publicly state “X.” reward, then the greater the reward offered, Hence, his cognition of his private belief is the greater should be the subsequent opinion dissonant with his cognition concerning his change. His data, however, did not support actual public statement. this idea. He found, rather, that a large reward 2. Similarly, the knowledge that he has said produced less subsequent opinion change than “not X” is consonant with (does fit together did a smaller reward. Actually, this finding by with) those cognitive elements corresponding Kelman is consistent with the theory we will to the reasons, pressures, promises of rewards outline below but, for a number of reasons, is and/or threats of punishment which induced
1 him to say “not X.” The experiment reported here was done as part of 3. In evaluating the total magnitude ofa program of research supported by a grant from the
National Science Foundation to the senior author. We dissonance, one must take account of both wish to thank Leonard Hommel, Judson Mills, and dissonances and consonances. Let us think of Robert Tenvilliger for their help in designing and the sum of all the dissonances involving some carrying out the experiment. We would also like to particular cognition as “D” and the sum ofacknowledge the help of Ruth Smith and Marilyn M. Miller. all the consonances as “C.” Then we might think of the total magnitude of dissonance as being a function of “D” divided by “D” plus “C.