“Land improvements” is an asset category that includes property attached to land (such as a fence or sewer system) that has a finite life and should be depreciated. However, the distinction between land and land improvements can sometimes be difficult to draw.
Over time, property and equipment can lose a significant amount of value for many reasons. If impairment is suspected, a recoverability test is applied to determine whether enough cash will be generated by the asset to cover its current book value. If not, a fair value test is then applied and the asset’s book value is reduced to fair value if that number is lower.
During construction of property and equipment, interest is capitalized rather than expensed because revenues are not being generated by the asset. The matching principle requires recognition of this expense be delayed until revenue is earned.