Approaches to reducing the entry into juvenile confinement have for the most part focused on changes in juvenile court decision making, including the use of determinant sentencing policies and changes in administrative procedures. Advocates for both toughness on crime and equity and consistency in sentencing have sought changes that make sentencing less subjective . Despite the long history of research on how race affects sentencing decisions, there are still no empirically based interventions for reducing DMC with respect to sentencing.
Approaches to reducing DMC by transferring serious offenders into the criminal justice system are controversial. While administrative and legislative changes can result in the increased use of waivers and thereby decrease the number of youth likely to face juvenile confinement, the results have been criticized as disproportionately affecting African American youth, harmful, and ultimately mixed in their outcomes