Intuition In Descartes’s philosophy, the introspective process by which clear and distinct ideas are discovered.
Kepler, Johannes (1571–1630) By observation and mathematical deduction, Kepler determined the elliptical paths of the planets around the sun. He also did pioneer work in optics.
Luther, Martin (1483–1546) Was especially disturbed by corruption within the church and by the church’s emphasis on ritual. He believed that a major reason for the church’s downfall was its embracing of Aristo- tle’s philosophy, and he urged a return to the personal religion that Augustine had described. He accepted Augustine’s concept of predestination but denied human free will. His attack of the established church contributed to the Reformation, which divided Europe into warring camps.
Montaigne, Michel de (1533–1592) Like the earlier Greek and Roman Skeptics, Montaigne believed there was no objective way of distinguishing among various claims of truth. His doubts concerning human knowl- edge stimulated a number of subsequent thinkers such as Bacon and Descartes.