Race remains a theoretical and methodological consideration as well. Some research indicates that both gender and race affect officer assignments, gen- eral behavior patterns in police organizations, and perceptions of treatment by peers. Currently, some scholars are attending to the interactive nature of race, class, gender, and sexual orientation. For example, S. Martin’s compre- hensive research of five police agencies found that race, class, and gender guide organizational behavior, gender interactions, and officer conduct. The interactions between men and women, between women, and between Black and White individu- als aligned with the historical context of policing as both White and male. Race also played a significant role in the gendering process. Men either reified White women as objects of sexual desire or glorified secretaries. White male officers viewed Black women as a source of labor. Similarly, Dodge and Pogrebin (2001) used the intersection approach to their qualitative study of police professional rela- tionships, finding that the intersections of race and gender shaped perceptions of the officers. The researchers found that masculine norms in police organizations height- ened the marginalization of both women and other minorities.
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