Identify the dependent variable(s) and independent variable(s)

Read the following abstracts. Then,

i. Identify the dependent variable(s) and independent variable(s).

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ii. Briefly explain your reasoning.


a. “Decades of research have illuminated the pernicious effects of white racial prejudice on American politics. However, by focusing on prejudice, scholars have neglected other racial attitudes that might be relevant to whites’ political preferences. Our project addresses this omission by exploring how American politics is affected by white collective guilt—defined as remorse that a white person experiences due to her group’s actions toward black people. We expect collective guilt to motivate white support for both policies perceived to benefit African Americans and black politicians; we also theorize conditions under which collective guilt is uniquely activated. We examine these expectations using original data from five national surveys, including two embedded experiments. The results reveal that collective guilt has considerable explanatory power, even after taking standard measures of racial attitudes into account. We conclude that collective guilt is an independent racial attitude with significant consequences for white opinion” (Chudy et al. 2019).

b. “How do elections and postelection protest shape political trust in a competitive autocracy? Taking advantage of largely exogenous variation in the timing of a survey conducted in Moscow in 2011, we find that with few exceptions the election had little systematic effect on political trust, perhaps because vote improprieties were not new information. In contrast, the unexpected protest that followed increased trust in government. In this case, heightened trust arises largely from opposition voters—those most likely to be surprised by permission to hold the protest—who update their beliefs. We argue that when autocrats permit protest unexpectedly, citizens may update their beliefs about the trustworthiness of the government. Our results suggest that citizens may cue not off the content of a protest but off the government’s decision to permit it. In addition, autocrats can increase trust in government by allowing protest when it is unexpected” (Frye and Borisova 2019).