Health Information and Data

The following questions are based on the article by Kulkarni, Swinburn and Utter (2015).
Q1(a) What was the aim of this study?
(1 mark)
Q1(b) What is the study design? What issue arises regarding temporality with this design?
Please explain in a few words how this could apply for this issue. (3 marks)
Q1(c) Mental health was assessed using the emotional functioning subscale of the Pediatric Quality of Life (PedsQL) instrument. It asked five questions related to fear, sadness, anger,
somatic troubles and anxiety. What type of measurement scale was each of these measured
on? (1 mark)
Q1(d) The analysis reported a correlation between the healthy and the unhealthy eating
scores. What was it? What does this mean? Please indicate the null hypothesis and interpret
the p value with regard to it.
(4 marks)
Q1(e) The researchers note a limitation of the study is it may not be representative of the
population. Why is this important?
(1 mark)
Total – 10 marks
These questions are based on the article by Francis et al. (2019).
Q2(a) What were the aims of this study?
(3 marks)
Q2(b) Where does a randomised controlled trial fit in the hierarchy of evidence? Why is
randomisation important – please mention the key relevant concept/s?
(3 marks)
Q2(c) Please comment on the external validity of this study for young adults with
depression? How could the sampling frame be changed to increase external validity?
(2 marks)
Q2(d) Design a potential randomised controlled trial for adolescents. This should try to
improve on the study by Francis et al. (2019) and not simply copy it. You must:
o state the hypothesis
o outline the sampling method
o identify the independent and dependent variables and how they would be measured
(including the measurement scales)
o Identify statistical techniques that would be important and critical values for these (covered in Topic 7,iv)
o Mention potential issues that impact on internal validity.
This question can be answered in the form of a list
(150 words max.).
(7 marks)
Total – 15 marks
The following questions are based on the article by Ashton et al. (2015).
Q3(a) What was the aim of this study?
(1 mark)
Q3(b) What was the sampling method used in this study? Why would the researchers
choose this approach?
(2 marks)
Q3(c) What was the data collection method in this study? What are potential limitations of
this approach (in general)?
(4 marks)
Q3(d) At what point did researchers stop collecting new data? What is the term for this?
(2 marks)
Total – 9 marks
In this section, you will need to synthesise the findings from the three studies.
The studies have provided evidence on the role of diet for depression and factors that may be important for intervening to improve diet. Suppose you are a Policy Officer in the Population Health Division of the Commonwealth Department of Health. You have been asked to review the evidence and write a brief report for the Department and these are the only study findings available to you.
Q4(a) Please provide a summary of the evidence regarding the relationship between diet and depression in adolescents and young adults. You should summarise the findings from each of the three studies, noting the limitations of these findings based on the study designs used. You should also note the limitations of the study findings with respect to all adolescents and young adults. The summary should suggest considerations for how to improve diet to reduce depression based on the findings (150 words max.)
(10 marks)
Q4(b) The study by Ashton et al. (2014) focussed on young adult males. Given your knowledge of study designs, design a qualitative study examining motivators and barriers to healthy eating in adolescent or young adult females. Please list the research question, study design, sampling method, data collection method/s and how you would analyse the data.
Please justify each choice in a few words. You are required to use an original and focussed approach, rather than simply following the example paper (100 words max.).
(6 marks)
Total – 16 marks
Presentation and Grammar
(5 marks)
Referencing: please follow the guidelines outlined later in this document.
(5 marks)
Total marks = 60