Empiricism and Rationalism

1. In general, what are the basic differences between empiricism and rationalism? Include in your answer a distinction between a passive and an active mind.

2. Assume a person robs a bank. Give the general tenor of an explanation of that person’s behavior based on reasons and then on causes. In which type of expla- nation would holding the person responsible for his or her actions make the most sense? Explain.

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3. What was Spinoza’s conception of nature? What was his position on the mind–body relationship? How did Spinoza distinguish between emotions and passions?

4. In what way did Spinoza’s philosophy encourage the development of scientific psychology?

5. Leibniz disagreed with Locke’s contention that all ideas are derived from experience. How did Leibniz explain the origin of ideas?

6. Summarize Leibniz’s monadology.

7. Discuss Leibniz’s proposed solution to the mind– body problem.

8. Summarize Reid’s philosophy of common sense. Include in your answer a definition of direct realism.

9. What is faculty psychology?


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