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Reply to Dawanne   

 

Factors that Influence Ethical Behaviors

            Ethical actions and decisions of leaders are determined by a plethora of ethical factors (Johnson, 2019). Johnson (2019) and Koukl (2017) list these factors as nationalism, global citizenship, diversity, complexity, and God’s call to love. Nationalism considers arguments for institutional recognition of a nation’s identity and appropriate limits of national accommodation (Koch & Perreault, 2019). Global citizenship is a deeper understanding of universal values such as peace and dignity or the sustainability of mankind and their rights (Barrow, 2017). Diversity acknowledges the multiple beliefs and the actions of people deemed as right or wrong (Rabl et al., 2020). Complexities are ethical virtues that underscore the presence of character in a person while ascertaining ones attitude or actions by embracing a complex state of mind (Cates, 2019). God’s call to love directs leaders through the Word to mirror God’s love for the world seen through Jesus’ willingness to die for all souls and save us from sin. This is the ultimate revelation of God’s love (Koukl, 2017; The Holy Bible, John 3:16, KJV).

Ethical Nationalism

            Bonikowski and Dimaggio (2016) contest that nationalism looks at discussions regarding moral worth of a country to ascertain political and social traits. Koch and Perreault (2019) posit that a country’s political and social traits are ethical only if the country’s ideals and values are consistent with the state. These assertions suggest that nationalism is designed as a unifier when considered politically and socially. Zeng & Sparks (2020) share the example of the Made is the USA campaign in which products and materials produce in the United States are superior to those from other nations. In China, official nationalism is changing to popular nationalism. This is a result of China’s recent trade battles with the United States (Zeng & Sparks, 2020). This research concludes that President Trump’s administration damaged China’s trade reputation with the United States leaving China as a victim of economic aggression (Zeng & Sparks, 2020). The study from these authors provides that competition and unethical natures of two countries creates popular nationalism and dampening official nationalism through collaboration.

Ethical Global Citizenship

            Global citizens identify with a certain community to uphold their heritage and culture (Barrow, 2017). Johnson (2019) suggests that globalization, by way of free trade, travel, and immigration, effects societies. He also suggests that people are accountable for the representation of ethical global citizenship. This illuminates the need to build strong cross-cultural competencies to identify the risks of globalization and the challenges of ethical diversity (Johnson, 2019). Nations with a capitalist approach through the valuation of greed over ethics and spirituality do not possess a global citizenship perspective (Reniert, 2015).

Ethical Diversity and Complexity

            Ethical diversity faces challenges that arise from nations, ethnic groups, and religions that address moral dilemmas in different ways (Johnson, 2019). Moral standards are a beacon for ethical principles, however, not everyone has the same moral standards. Complexities and extraordinary virtues, traits, and morals of a person and interconnects with ethical diversity (Cates, 2019). Building cross-cultural competencies helps to prevent ethical diversity challenges such as ethnocentrism (Johnson, 2019). Johnson (2019) opines that ethnocentricity breeds a worldview that focuses on one culture only and the complexities of that culture risk deeper ethnocentric potentials. Johnson (2019) suggests that ethical leaders be mindful of cultural diversity and utilize a “pluralistic perspective” that recognizes the many cultures and beliefs present and assist in preventing moral exclusion.

Ethical Hospitality

            Zembylas (2020) offers that ethical hospitality is a social and political concept embracing the inclusion of acceptable citizenship behaviors. Thusly, ethical hospitality correlates nationalism, global citizenship, diversity, and complexity. The United States’ relationship with Egypt is a showing of such hospitality. The United States assisted Egypt economically and militarily with the provision of more than $80 billion in resources (U.S. Department of State, 2021). The United States and Egypt work together in the advancement of healthcare quality. Farrag and Harris (2021) assess collaborative efforts between these two nations to improve the accessibility of healthcare through many platforms. These authors explain the work of both countries in advancing healthcare through the observation of challenges industrial nations face; then they use experience to advance healthcare in developing nations.

            The efforts of these two nations is an example of nationalism through unity between citizen and government strategies and goals; global citizenship through interactivity of industrialized nations to create healthcare plans for developing nations; and diversity and complexity through interactivity of different cultures and beliefs to realize utilitarianism (Farrag & Harris, 2021; Johnson, 2019). Zembylas (2020) states that ethical hospitality welcomes people without consideration of legal or political dimensions and does so without condition.

Ethical Leaders’ Roles in Navigating through Global Citizenship

            Ethical leaders are dependent on ethical competencies and morals to guide global citizenship (Johnson, 2019). They must utilize cultural change efforts with a foundation of global citizenship and address diversity and complexity issues within that citizenship (Cates, 2019). Johnson (2019) suggests that leaders create ethical drivers to propagate ethical changes is a systematic way through analysis, engagement, socialization, and ethics training. As a form Air Force service member, the student affirms the importance of diversity through globalization and cultural awareness to achieve ethical compliance.

            Leaders with a Christian worldview exhibit global behaviors and are dependent on God’s word to guide their actions as global citizens. Psalm 82:3 gives direction to leaders; “Defend the poor and fatherless: do justice to the afflicted and needy” (The Holy Bible, Psalm 82:3, KJV). Romans 8:14-16 tells of how Christians leaders are different than secular leaders. Christians are led by the Holy Spirit and interconnects their values and beliefs to the acceptable nationalism and citizenship perspectives. This is done while acknowledging diversity and complexity in all people.

           

References

Barrow, E. (2017). No Global Citizenship? Re-envisioning Global Citizenship Education in

Times of Growing Nationalism. The High School Journal. Vol. 100, No. 3. pp. 163-165. https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.2307/90024209

Bonikowski, B., & DiMaggio, P. (2016). Varieties of American Popular Nationalism. American

Sociological Review. Vol. 8(5). pp. 949-980. https://doi.org.10.1177/0003122416663683

Cates, D. (2019). Relational Complexity and Ethical Responsibility. Journal of Religious Ethics.

Vol. 47, Issue 1. pp. 154-165. https://doi-org.ezproxy.liberty.edu/10.1111/jore.12257.

Damer, T. (2013). Attacking Faulty Reasoning. A Practical Guide to Fallacy-Free Arguments.

Clark Baxter Publishing.

Farrag, A., & Harris, Y. (2021). A discussion of the United States’ and Egypt’s health care

quality improvement efforts. International Journal of Healthcare Management. Vol. 14, No. 4. pp. 136-143. https://doi.org/10.1080/20479700.2019.1620454

Johnson, C. (2019). Organizational Ethics. A Practical Approach (4th Edition). SAGE

Publications, Inc.

Koch, N., & Perreault, T. (2019). Resource nationalism. Progress in Human Geography. Vol.

43(4). pp. 611-631. https://doi.org/10.1177/0309132518781497

Koukl, G. (2017). The Story of Reality. Mark Sweeney & Associates Publishing.

Merida, T. (2015). Christ-Centered Exposition Exalting Jesus in 1 & 2 Kings.

B&H Publishing Group.

Nass, E. (2015). A Christian Theory of Leadership Ethics. Catholic Social Science Review. Vol.

  1. 3-19. https://web-a-ebscohost-com.ezproxy.liberty.edu/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=1&sid=474a1c70-fd62-4cd3-abe8-650d3c976d5b%40sessionmgr4008

Rabl, T., Triana, M., Byun, S., & Bosch, L. (2020). Diversity Management Efforts as an Ethical

Responsibility: How Employees’ Perceptions of an Organizational Integration and Learning Approach to Diversity Affect Employee Behavior. Journal of Business Ethics. Vol. 161, Issue 3. pp. 531-550. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-018-3849-7

Reinert, S. (2015). The Way to Wealth around the World: Benjamin Franklin and the

Globalization of American Capitalism. The American Historical Review. Vol. 120, No. 1. pp. 61-97. https://www.jstor.org/stable/4369336

The Holy Bible. Authorized King James Version. (1798/2011). Thomas Nelson Inc.

U.S Department of State (2021). U.S. Relations with Egypt. Retrieved June 11, 2021, from

https://www.state.gov/u-s-relations-with-egypt/

Zembylas, M. (2020). From the Ethic of Hospitality to Affective Hospitality: Ethical, Political

and Pedagogical Implications of Theorizing Hospitality through the Lens of Affect Theory. Studies in Philosophy and Education. Vol. 39, Issue 1. pp. 37-50. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11217-019-09666-z

Zeng, W., & Sparks, C. (2019). Popular nationalism: Global Times and the US-China trade war.

International Communication Gazette. Vol. 82, Issue 1. pp. 26-41. https://doi.org/10.1177/1748048519880723

 

 

 

Reply to Todd

 

Guiding Ethics

The shaping of ethical behavior comes from many aspects of everyday life. Developing one’s ethical path involves the continuous influence of everyday life from nationalism to faith. An individual’s perception of these impacts affects their choice and understanding of ethical behaviors in their life. An individual’s culture shapes their life from childhood through adulthood providing experiences and ingrained understanding of cultural ethics. While many national cultures reflect the faiths of a given region, faith in and of itself provides further ethical understanding of concepts and experiences. As nationalism and faith shape an individual so to does the interplay of globalization and global awareness. This development of ethical behavior is continually shaped as perceptions and understanding continually change as experiences continually add to an individual’s understanding of the world around them and their relation to it.

National Culture

National culture is often the first and the last factor shaping an individual’s perception of ethical behavior. Developing national culture and identity begins during early childhood and continually evolves into adulthood. Dewey (2021) proposes the development of ethical perceptions develop during childhood leading into ethical choices and understanding in adulthood. Guiding the formation of ethical identity is the development of national and regional cultures. Puncheva-Michelotti et al. (2018) develop social proximity from national identities and relates it service in developing standardized ethical standards across regions. This social proximity shapes the allowable behaviors within a nation developing a shared level of accountability. This guides organizations toward ethically acceptable behaviors from both internal guides and external pressures to conform. Beyond this national and regional identity the faiths of these regions further the course of ethical behaviors.

Faith

“Now I beseech you, brethren, mark them which cause divisions and offences contrary to the doctrine which ye have learned; and avoid them,” as faith guides individuals toward service to the greater good it furthers accountability for those who follow the path of the Lord (King James Bible, 1769/2017, Romans 16:17). This foundation in faith guides individuals along ethical paths toward ethical actions and decisions. Seeking to benefit the entirety of the organization and its areas of operation. Chan and Ananthram (2019) present the value of deep-seated ethical ideals on the development of ethical behaviors in organizations. Chan and Ananthram’s work depicts the value of faith from a diverse set of religions, all providing a basis for ethical behaviors. This foundational understanding from faith enables leaders and individuals to have a historical reference to assess scenarios and their ethical implications against. Driving this foundational basis are the teachings of faith and the community shared by practitioners of faith. This community furthers adds accountability for leaders and their actions within the community. Developing accountability to a higher calling grants leaders support in their ethical decisions beyond basic organizational support. Cater et al. (2017) relates the faithful’s adherence to religious doctrine as path toward ethical convictions. Faith strengthens these convictions and directs individual motivation towards positive outcomes. This established foundation of ethical development enables leaders to have confidence in their ethical decisions and support for them in the teachings of faith. Developing this confidence stems from the understanding of faith and the backing of their religious community. This backing allows leaders to make ethical decisions even if they are not the popular choice, but the right choice. This choice continues the path of an ethical leader in their continual journey.

Global Concerns

The journey of individuals and organizations in today’s global world adds many challenges to the ethical path. Bose (2019) highlights the role of regional ethics and their mixing in international organizations leading to a hybrid approach matching the ethics of various regions. Furthering this need for varied ethical viewpoints is the outward presentation and recognition of various international ethical concerns on Bose’s study. Here organizations are required to both internalize ethical norms and express these norms in visible forms. This visibility in the global economy has become vital to the functioning of international organizations. Developing these strategies and linking them to the regions firms operate within ensures alignment with their various operational regions. This further requires attention to not veer from the ethical foundations developed in an organization’s base of operations. These varied requirements for ethical decision making require organizational commitment to ensure ethics are maintained and developed within all the organization’s areas of operations. Developing and embracing these ethical paths enables frontline and strategic leaders to make decisions viewed as ethical in multiple regions. As Christian’s one’s calling to God furthers their path toward embracing varied cultures while maintaining their foundational values. Faith keeps leaders centered along their path while strengthening their course toward expanding ethically growing their organization’s footprint across the globe. Johnson (2018) furthers the path toward global expansion through the growth of an organization’s citizenship of shared values. These shared values allow organizational growth while maintaining the core ethical values of an organization.

References

Bose, I. (2019). Business ethics and consumer buying: An ethno-regional study in UAE. Ushus – Journal of Business Management, 18(4), 23-30. https://doi.org/10.12725/ujbm.49.3

Cater III, J. J., Collins, L. A., & Beal, B. D. (2017). Ethics, faith, and profit: Exploring the motives of the U.S. fair trade social entrepreneurs. Journal of Business Ethics, 146(1), 185-201. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-015-2934-4

Chan, C., & Ananthram, S. (2019). Religion-based decision making in Indian multinationals: A multi-faith study of ethical virtues and mindsets. Journal of Business Ethics, 156(3), 651-677. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-017-3558-7

Dewey, A. M. (2021). Shaping the environmental self: The role of childhood experiences in shaping identity standards of environmental behavior in adulthood. Sociological Perspectives, 64(4), 657-675. https://doi.org/10.1177/0731121420981681

Johnson, C. E. (2018). Organizational ethics: A practical approach (4th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. ISBN: 9781506361758.

King James Bible. (2017). King James Bible Online. http://www.kingjamesbibleonline.org/ (Original work published 1769)

Puncheva-Michelotti, P., Hudson, S., & Michelotti, M. (2018). The role of proximity to local and global citizens in stakeholders’ moral recognition of corporate social responsibility. Journal of Business Research, 88, 234-244. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2018.03.027

 

 

 

You must then post 2 responses to replies of 250 words

 

 

Respond to Dawanne

Natalie, thank you for your assessment this week on globalization and diversity. I concur with your statement regarding the strength diversity provides in relationships and the improvement of morale. You make mention specifically regarding relationships with consumers. I would like to interject that these improvements and this strengthening is evident in all relationships both professional and personal. In my reply, I am going focus more on nationalism. I agree with your statement that nationalism is one’s devotion to their own country. In my reply you will see a focus on nationalism and its relation to morality.

Nationalism is connected to morality when the objective is to build a society that propagates organizational citizenship (Johnson, 2019). Bonikowski and Dimaggio (2016) assert that nationalism is a collection of ideologies that link ruling natures of a group according to ethnicity, showing an emphasis on loyalty to a single country. Nationalism hinges on morality based on one’s values and ethical competencies. Multiple perspectives of acceptable or unacceptable ethical behaviors exist in nations and are part of ethical cleansing to align those behaviors. This shows the need for collective identification of right and wrong ideals, before embarking in nationalism activities. West and Zhong (2015) state ethical cleansing starts with a moral cleansing where one’s behaviors are assessed and restore moral-worth according to previous ethical violations.

Encouragement of nationalism comes from leaders who implement popular policies that, address cultural issues, and support non-violent patriotism (Gleaves & Llewellyn, 2017). Leaders are responsible for identifying a corporate culture’s nationalism representation to make the most effective ethical decisions. Southard (2017) studied Ellen Johnson Sirleaf, the first democratically elected President of Liberia. Sirleaf changed nationalism to national cosmopolitanism through a program that show the people how to belong to a nation (Southard, 2017).

Josiah was chosen by God to be king when he was only eight years old. He reformed religion and re-established God’s covenant with Israel (Merida, 2015; II Kings 23, KJV). Josiah was an early example of an ethical leader who inspired nationalism. When serving in the Air Force, this writer realized the maintenance of nationalism through our country’s eyes. The United States is pushing hard to sustain nationalism but often fails to do so with a focus on other countries rather than our own. Our service men and women are suffering and after serving, nationalism starts at home. How can we show other nations how to reach this milestone when we ourselves are falling short? “For our conversation is in Heaven; from whence also we look for the saviour [sic], the Lord Jesus Christ” (The Holy Bible, Philippians 3:20, KJV).

   

References

Bonikowski,B., & DiMaggio, P. (2016). Varieties of American Popular Nationalism. American

Sociological Review. Vol. 81, No. 5. pp. 949-980. https://www.jstor.org/stable/44245489

Gleaves, J., & Llewellyn, M. (2014). Ethics, Nationalism, and the Imagined Community: The

Case Against Inter-National Sport. Journal of the Philosophy of Sport. Vol. 41, Issue 1. pp. 1-19. https://doi-org.ezproxy.liberty.edu/10.1080/00948705.2013.785427

Johnson, C. (2019). Organizational Ethics. A Practical Approach (4th Edition). SAGE

Publications, Inc.

Merida, T. (2015). Christ-Centered Exposition Exalting Jesus in 1 & 2 Kings. B&H Publishing

Group.

Southard, B. (2017). Crafting cosmopolitan nationalism. Ellen Johnson Sirleaf’s rhetorical

leadership. Quarterly Journal of Speech. Vol. 103, Issue 4. pp. 395-414. https://doi-org.ezproxy.liberty.edu/10.1080/00335630.2017.1360508

The Holy Bible. Authorized King James Version. (1798/2011). Thomas Nelson Inc.

West, C., & Zhong, C. (2015). Moral Cleansing. Current Opinion in Psychology. Vol. 6. pp. 221-

  1. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.copsyc.2015.09.022

 

Respond to TD

Diversity in organizations is an ever present and vital asset in the attainment of ethical business processes. Diversity in organizations comes in many shapes and expressions, from religions, sex, and nationality to name a few. Each of these groups brings their own experiences to an organization. This breadth of experiences grants an organization and its leaders an opportunity to embrace and cultivate ethical behaviors from these individuals. Bringing together these experience aids in the shaping of an organizations ethical culture. Ramirez (2018) presents diversity within an organization as a means to capture the ethical concerns of the organization’s chief constituencies. This development enables organizations to ensure they meet both internal ethical norms and the ethical concerns of their operating environment. This diversity furthers strengthens the organizations ethical foundation, broadening the foundation to encapsulate various perspectives and need within the organization. “There are, it may be, so many kinds of voices in the world, and none of them is without signification,” each voice in an organization brings both meaning and strength to the organization’s foundational principles (King James Bible, 1769/2017, 1 Corinthians 14:10).

From the diversity of an organization Thayer furthers the nationalistic tendencies of organizations. Delivering national identity to an organization further develops and organizations ethical foundations. In nations with strong faith and national ethical standards the foundations are easily matched. Driving the ethical foundation individuals bring their past experiences and perceptions to an organization. Halder et al. (2020) relates both the positive factors in ethical theory derived from national identity while relating the negative effect of traditional practices on the implementation of new ethical initiatives. Developing the ethical path forward for organizations can mean breaking from historical precedence and challenging the status quo. Breaking the mold leaders with strong moral character are able to generate positive change without forgetting historical practices of a nation. This break from tradition to approach and develop ethical behaviors requires leaders able to break from traditional practices. Johnson (2018) highlights the challenges of breaking the historical barriers in the securing ethical change (p. xix). These barriers are often embedded in cultural history and experience requiring leaders to facilitate the changes needed for ethical behaviors. Here leaders rely on the diversity of an organization and their influence to facilitate the changes necessary to create foundations for ethical cultures.

References

Halder, P., Hansen, E. N., Kangas, J., & Laukkanen, T. (2020). How national culture and ethics matter in consumers’ green consumption values. Journal of Cleaner Production, 265, 121754. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2020.121754

Johnson, C. E. (2018). Organizational ethics: A practical approach (4th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. ISBN: 9781506361758.

King James Bible. (2017). King James Bible Online. http://www.kingjamesbibleonline.org/ (Original work published 1769)

Ramirez, S. A. (2018). Diversity and ethics: Toward an objective business compliance function. Loyola University of Chicago Law Journal, 49(3), 581.