Discourse Analysis—Discourse analysis is actually not a specific research method, but can inform the phenomenon being studied. It provides a deconstructive reading and interpretation of a problem or text. Discourse analysis can be stated as a set of methods and theories for investigating language in use and language in social contexts. It can be used as well in ethnography to understand and examine a person’s social world. Approaches to discourse analysis may include discursive psychology; conversation analysis; critical discourse analysis and critical linguistics; and sociolinguistics. The defining of discourse analysis is part of its explanation. Stubbs defined it as being (a) concerned with language use beyond the boundaries of a sentence/utterance, (b) concerned with the interrelationships between language and society, and (c) concerned with the interactive or dialogic properties of everyday communication. The validity and reliability of discourse analysis may be found in four approaches: (a) deviant case analysis, (b) participant understanding, (c) coherence, and (d) reader’s evaluation.
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