Construct Validity

Confound A factor other than the independent variable that varies between the conditions of an experiment, thereby calling into question what caused any effects on the depen- dent variable.

Construct validity The extent to which the measures used in a study measure the variables they were designed to mea- sure and the manipulations in an experiment manipulate the variables they were designed to manipulate.

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Contact hypothesis The theory that direct contact between hostile groups will reduce intergroup prejudice under cer- tain conditions.

Contingency model of leadership The theory that leader- ship effectiveness is determined both by the personal char- acteristics of leaders and by the control afforded by the situation.

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