# Chi-square Statistic

16. One criticism of racial profiling studies is that people’s driving frequency is often unaccounted for. This is a problem because, all else being equal, people who spend more time on the road are more likely to get pulled over eventually. The following table contains PPCS data narrowed down to black male respondents. The variables measure driving frequency and whether these respondents had been stopped by police for traffic offenses within the past 12 months. With an alpha of .01, conduct a five-step hypothesis test to determine if the variables are independent.

17. The companion website (www.sagepub.com/gau) contains the SPSS data file GSS. This is a portion of the 2014 GSS. Two of the variables in this file are race and courts , which capture respondents’ race and their attitudes about courts’ harshness, respectively. Run a chi-square analysis to determine if people’s attitudes (the DV) vary by race (the IV). Then do the following.

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1. Identify the obtained value of the chi-square statistic. 2. Make a decision about whether you would reject the null hypothesis of independence at an alpha level of .05 and

explain how you arrived at that decision. 3. State the conclusion that you draw from the results of each of these analyses in terms of whether there is a

relationship between the two variables. 4. If you rejected the null hypothesis , interpret row percentages and applicable measures of association. How strong is the

relationship? Would you say that this is a substantively meaningful relationship?