Assignment #3 International Comparison
A Comparison Between Approaches Made in Australia and USA for Energy and Water Sustainability:
A report formed by UN (United Nations) in 2015 shows that in modern era, the newly formed governments all over the world that achieving good ‘economic growth’ is one the top priorities. If the aim of fast economic growth is reached, the hurdles and crucial challenges are faced in order to sustain this economic growth in various shapes. For instance, sustaining various resources of water and energy is hard to achieve while keeping the rate of economic growth high. In order to achieve this goal, certain hard decisions and sacrifices needs to be taken. Keeping in mind the harsh (and short) consequences of these decisions, there are few governments (rational and brave) that are committed to make these tough decisions. On the other hand many countries are reluctant. The responsibility of this lies not only within the governments but private sector and scientist as well. This report contains the actions, sacrifices and decision made by different political parties in USA (United States of America) and Australia. Comparison is also carried out in this report.
The decision taken in Unite States and Australia, in order to sustain the energy and its resources are on wide scenario. President Obama presented ‘The Better Building Initiative’ in year 2011. This initiative will compel households (commercial building) to dissipate energy in most economical method. This will help to save energy as much as possible. Same is the casein Australia; the report presented in 2011 by the GBCA (Green Building Council Australia) revealed that new law (of ‘Building Energy Efficiency Disclosure’) for energy consumption was implemented in 2010 July. According to this law, the office buildings that have an area of 2000 meter square or more than this, are required to acquire and show the certificate of “BEEC” (Building Energy Efficiency Certificate) in case if the building owner has wish to get financial benefits from leasing or selling the property owned by him/her.The economies of these two countries faced consequences and got affected as the starting cost of the investment saw a steep rise. For covering this problem, the governments as well as various societies of both countries needs to subsidies the economic situation to solve problems (“Kornevall 2011”).There are various other procedures acquired by the both governments of US and Australia. These procedures include technological innovations that helped to generate sustainable and clean form of energy. The NREL (National renewable energy laboratory) has made an invention of cheap procedure to do production of solar panels. This will play vital role to reduce the cost of solar panel production. In this invention, the method of heating silicon carried out by method of ‘optical furnaces’ and not the conventional method were utilized. Heating of silicon is the most important factor as silicon cells are the building block of solar panel (“Richard 2011”). This helped the production cost of the solar panel production to reduce by a handsome amount. This invention will make it affordable to install the solar panel for energy production. In addition to this, private sector (non-government establishments) in both countries of US and Australia can play vital role in sustaining the energy. Take an example, AEU (Australian education union), IEU (independent education union), CEA (Catholic earth care Australia) and AAEE (Australian association of environmental education) together working for education in ‘Australian Curriculum’ about the sustaining energy in “Australian Educational System”(“Nicholas 2014”). Similarly, US has introduced subjects of sustaining energy in education courses. The number of “Master’s degree” in ‘sustainable energy’ is above than 31. This is the vital investment in coming generations in order to make easy the method of conversion to sustainable from conventional. One of the example isthe “ARENA” (Australian Renewable Energy Agency), in order for leading and supporting the process of shifting the energy production method of energy to sustainable from conventional. The government of Australia is giving subsidies for this purpose. On the other hand, in US the most recognized project is ‘Tesla’. For generation of sustainable energy, Tesla has the leading role in all over the world. Tesla is concentration on cars and households for conversion to sustainable methods of energy production. It is trying best to introduce electrically power cars to replace the conventionally powered cars reserving its performance and quality. It is also an idea to produce “Tesla Solar Roofs” and “Power-wall” in order to have the conventional roof and wall replaced. This roof will produce energy while walls will store it. This is great step toward eliminating the old ways of energy production and its supply. Tesla has long term plan (of investment) in consideration as displayed by Fig-1 (“Zientara 2015”).
Apart from that, the problem of sustaining water has been dealt with severe intention and considered to be widely taken. A new law “water act (2007)” was implemented by the government of Australia. The law compels to take back the over-allocated and over-used water resources for protection and improvement the values of ecologic. In the same pattern, United States of America EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) in year 2008 carried out releasing of ‘practice guide’ along with ‘training session’ and ‘workshop’ in aim for management of the assets used to produce, utilization and water transport. The workshops and the ‘practice guide’ helped to explain few (five to be precise) questions that are very useful to participate in the sustaining process: what will be strategy of long term investment? What will be the lowest cost of life cycle? What are the assets critical for performance sustaining? Do I know the ongoing of state of mine assets? What are the requirements for service of ‘sustainable level’? (“EPA 2008”). The decision and functionalities of these two countries (Australia and US) governments that has been done in last 20 years caused to need of creation for new market for various procedures of sustained energy resources in various regions to water usage. The market has provided different innovations and technologies. Take an example here, the “PowPow team” from United States has done the production of 2 technologies (since 2015) which aim to up rise the industry of farming because the industry of farming has the largest consumption of water. One of these products is “MonitorTM”, this product is a brilliant idea because it functions without the installation of a ‘hardware’ in order to make distribution of water easy. The principle is based on the current ‘smart meter’ for management of the usage and getting the ‘historical data’. In addition to this, it warns (the farmers) in case of a leakage and failure occurring in the irrigation system. The second product name is “Irrigation Advisor™”, this product ensure that network of irrigation has equal pressure and has the stability for sustaining the usage of water with the help of various procedures like ‘soil moisture’ (“John 2015”).The non-government establishments in United States showed a good response in order to save the resources of water of the nations for generation upcoming. But the majority of works carried out by these private sectors are focusing abroad the United States (mainly poorer countries). On the other hand, majority of the functions of private sector in the country of Australia is focusing the own country and very little amount was done for abroad. This is because Australia is more dry that the United States and has more scarcity of the water. This implies that Australia requires more attention to achieve this goal. One of the examples from private sector projects is “The Natural Edge Project” carried out for Australian region. The function this project is to diagnose the problems of various sectors in rational way. The sectors include: ‘agricultural’, ‘commercial’ and ‘residential’. They are the reason for water wastage and different opportunities are recommended to be carried out in these areas (“Smith et al. 2009”). For explanation, the project displayed the utilization of water by a general ‘commercial building’ with the help of pi-chart (fig 2).
The dealing procedures, actions and decisions of governments of US and Australia to tackle problem of water and energy have similarities in few scenarios. Some of these are different from each other because of the required needs. Both of the countries are on track to regulate the consumption of water and energy. Australia is strict about regulating water consumption as it is dry country relative to United States. Australia can achieve more success with the help of strict policy. Moreover, Australia can acquire info from US how to decrease opposition to the strict decisions. US have been successful to encourage and apply technology in order to energy and water sustaining. Because of the large community of science and its power in politics in United States, it became possible easily. With the help of US, Australia acquired knowledge about science and innovation implementation in order to sustain the resources of energy and water. This field has started to develop and in upcoming year Australia will observe a shift to sustainable resources. The private sectors are helping the governments of two countries energy resource sustaining. Australia is behind the US in use of technology and innovation for energy sustaining. Private sectors in Australia are doing investment in education for future. Relative to US, the private sectors are in more advantageous to Australia. Australia is focusing on its own region because the needs here are more attention seeking and has pre-planned objectives while in US, where needs are not that major the US is focusing on the relatively poor countries.
Australia and United States are considered as the leading countries all over the world in order to shift to the sustainable resources of energy and water although there are few dis-similarities. As both countries are in advance phase of shifting to sustained energy and water resources, they can work together to overcome weaknesses. It can be said that, Australia and United States can get knowledge from experience of each other as we know the resources of water and energy are on deplete in their countries and world.
- United Nations 2015, Water and Energy Sustainability,viewed 2nd October 2017, < http://www.un.org/waterforlifedecade/pdf/01_2014_sustainability_eng.pdf>.
- Green Building Council Australia 2011, Regulation and Standards, viewed 2nd October 2017 <https://www.gbca.org.au/advocacy/federal/7-regulation-and-standards/>.
– Kornevall, C 2011, ‘Energy efficient buildings are vital to sustainability’, The Guardian, 2nd of April, p. 1.
– Richard, M 2011, ‘Clever Optical Furnace Could Cut in Half the Energy Required to Make Solar Cells’, Treehugger, 21st of December, p. 1.
- Australian Education for Sustainability Alliance, Education for Sustainability and the Australian Curriculum Project: Final Report for Research Phases 1 to 3, AESA, Melbourne, 2014
- Zientara, B 2015, Tesla’s Powerwall Home Battery Sounds Too Good to be True. Is it?, Solar Power Rocks, viewed 2nd October 2017, <https://solarpowerrocks.com/affordable-solar/tesla-powerwall-home-solar-battery/>.
– Water Act 2007(Cwlth), ComLaw, s. 3, viewed 2nd October 2017, <https://www.legislation.gov.au/Details/C2017C00151>.
- United States Environmental Protection Agency 2008, Asset Management for Water and Wastewater Utilities, viewed 2nd October 2017, < https://www.epa.gov/sustainable-water-infrastructure/asset-management-water-and-wastewater-utilities>.
- John, J 2015, How Energy Data Can Help California Farms Save Water, Green Tech Media, viewed 2nd October 2017, <https://www.greentechmedia.com/articles/read/how-energy-data-can-help-california-farms-save-water#gs.8O60WEg>.
- Smith, M., Hargroves, K., Desha, C., and Stasinopoulos, P. (2009)Water Transformed: Sustainable Water Solutions for Climate Change Adaptation, The Natural Edge Project (TNEP), Griffith University, and Australian National University, Australia.