A General Orientation to Human Anatomy

A General Orientation to Human Anatomy

Expected Learning Outcomes.

  1. Describe a person in anatomical position.
  2. Describe how to use the terms right and left in anatomical reference.
  3. Identify the various planes in which a body might be dissected.
  4. Describe the appearance of a body presented along various planes.
  5. Describe the location of the body cavities and identify the major organs found in each cavity
  6. List and describe the location of the major anatomical regions of the body.
  7. Describe the location of the four abdominopelvic quadrants and the nine abdominopelvic regions and list the major organs located in each.
  8. List and define the major directional terms used in anatomy.
  9. Describe the location of body structures, using appropriate directional terminology.
  10. Describe the location of structures of the body, using basic regional and systemic terminology.
  11. List the organ systems of the human body and their major components.
  12. Describe the major functions of each organ.

 

1 Major Themes of Anatomy and Physiology

Learning outcomes

 

Define the terms anatomy and physiology

Give specific examples to show the interrelationship between anatomy and physiology.

Describe, in order form simplest to most complex, the major levels of organization in the human organism.

Give an example of each level of organization.

Define Homeostasis.

List the components of a feedback loop and explain the function of each.

Compare and contrast positive and negative feedback in terms of the relationship between stimulus and response.

Explain why negative feedback is the most commonly used mechanism to maintain homeostasis in the body.

Provide an example of a negative feedback loop that utilizes the nervous system to relay information. Describe the specific organs, structures, cells, or molecules ( receptors, neurons, CNS structures, effectors, neurotransmitters) included in the feedback loop.

Provide an example of a positive feedback loop in the body. Describe the specific structures (organs, cells or molecules) included in the feedback loop.

Provide specific examples to demonstrate how organ systems respond to maintain homeostasis.

Explain how different organ systems relate to one another to maintain homeostasis.

Predict factors or situation affecting various organ systems that could disrupt homeostasis.

Predict the types of problems that would occur in the body if various organ systems could not maintain homeostasis and allowed regulated variables (body conditions) to move away from normal.

 

3 Cellular Form and Function

Learning outcomes

 

Identify the three main parts of a cell, and list the general functions of each.

Explain how cytoplasm and cytosol are different.

Describe how lipids are distributed in a cell membrane, and explain their functions.

Describe how carbohydrates are distributed in a cell membrane, and explain their functions.

Describe how proteins are distributed in a cell membrane, and explain their functions.

With respect to the following membrane transport processes-simple diffusion, facilitated diffusion; osmosis, active transport, exocytosis, endocytosis, phagocytosis, pinocytosis, & filtration:

-state the type of material moving in each process.

-Describe the mechanism by which movement of material occurs in each process.

-Discuss the energy requirements and, if applicable, the sources of energy of each process.

-Give examples of each process in the human body.

Describe the effects of hypertonic, isotonic, and hypotonic conditions on cells.

Demonstrate various cell transport processes and, give appropriate information, predict the outcomes of these demonstrations.

Define the term organelle.

For each different type of organelle associated with human cells

-Identify the organelle.

Describe the structure of the organelle.

Describe the function of the organelle.

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