1/ Discuss the nature and value to society of the research being done by BSF Ltd 2/ Discuss the problems with the early the research done by BSF Ltd 3/ Define and discuss the nature of and differences between research and development (R&D).

ACCOUNTING THEORY & CURRENT ISSUES
This assignment is to be submitted in accordance with assessment policy stated in the Subject Outline and Student Handbook

Partial References:
CBC. 2016. Shift to plant-based fish feed could hurt health, environment, CBCNews Technology & Science, (23 Mar/16), Retrieved on 11 Jul/16 from: https://www.cbc.ca/news/technology/aquaculture-feed-1.3262922
Lothe, R. 2013. Fish feed-research may help reduce world hunger, ScienceNordic, 17 Mar/13, Retrieved on 11, Jul/16 from: 20 https://sciencenordic.com/fish-feed-research-may-helpreduce-world-hunger
Sarker, P.K., Kapuscinski, A.R., Lanois, A.J., Livesey, E.D., Bernhard, K.P., Coley, M.L. 2016. Towards Sustainable Aquafeeds: Complete Substitution of Fish Oil with Marine Microalga Schizochytrium sp. Improves Growth and Fatty Acid Deposition in Juvenile Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). PLOS ONE, 2016; 11(6), Retrieved on 11, Jul/16 from: https://journals.plos.org/plosone/articleid=10.1371/journal.pone.0156684.
Sarker, P.K., Kapuscinski, A.R., Lanois, A.J., Livesey, E.D., Bernhard, K.P., Coley, M.L. 2016. Towards Sustainable Aquafeeds: Complete Substitution of Fish Oil with Marine Microalga Schizochytrium sp. Improves Growth and Fatty Acid Deposition in Juvenile Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). PLOS ONE, 2016; 11(6), Retrieved on 11, Jul/16 from: https://journals.plos.org/plosone/articleid=10.1371/journal.pone.0156684.

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HANDBOOK REFERENCE
Deegan, C. (2012), Australian Financial Accounting, 7 th ed., McGraw-Hill Australia.
Godfrey, J., Hodgson, A., Tarca, A., Hamilton, J., and Holmes, S. 2010. Accounting Theory, 7th ed., John Wiley
Deegan, C., 2013. Financial Accounting Theory, 4th edition, McGraw Hill Book Company, Sydney. ICAA. 2014. Financial Reporting Handbook 2014, The Institute of Chartered Accountants in Australia, John Wiley & Sons Australia.

ASSESSMENT TOPIC
Bio-sustainable Feeds (BSF) Ltd., an Australian bio-research firm listed on the Australian Stock Exchange (ASX), has engaged research on sustainable aqua-culture feeds for two decades. Its research on a plant based feed (canola, corn, soya-bean, sunflower, etc., meal) costing $360 million AUD ($120 million collapsed when high-value piscavorian fish (e.g. fish eating species like salmon, trout, tuna, etc.) failed to thrive. Specifically, CBC (2016) noted that, while the plant-based fish feed was supposed to resolve the problem fish-based feed that are converted at a rate of 10.0 kg of low-value fish into 1.0 kg of high value fish (i.e. the normal conversion from a lower trophic level to a higher one), the conversion rate was actually 30.0 kg of plant based wet feed (before oven drying) to into 1.0 kg of high value fish—plus, over 1/3rd of the fish died (vs. less than 1/20th for the fish-based feeds), plus growing times nearly doubled, plus the mature fish were smaller (only 60 percent of the final weights of those grown on the fish-based feeds).
The above mentioned issues are compounded by accusations from environmentalists that diverting human-quality food crops into growing luxury fish is just as bad as diverting low value fish into that production—it benefits the rich but puts the poor at increased risk of malnutrition or even starvation
In response to the above issues, BSF Ltd. is researching the use of bacteria to produce fish feeds from wood chips, sugar cane residue, or recaptured methane gas (e.g. from dumps, sewage, food processing plants). The research, which has had some success at BSF Ltd. and other facilities (Rust, et al., 2011; Lothe, 2013; Sarker, et al., 2016), has cost BSF Ltd. $160 million AUD in research to date and is expected to cost another $200 million AUD in development costs to bring it to market.
BSF Ltd. received a $500 million AUD grant from the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO, Federal Government of Australia) in return for BSF Ltd. spending at least $100 million AUD a year on alternative aquaculture feeds. CSIRO paid the funds to BSF Ltd. three years ago (in 2013), and (during those three years) BSF Ltd. has spent a total of $500 million AUD ($340 million plus $160 million) on research and has committed to spend $200 million in development cost over the next two years to develop an alternative aquaculture feed from the research done to date.
The expected net market value of the patent is $700 million AUD if sold in two years or $200 million AUD a year for 10 years if produced and sold (remember to adjust for two years) and the appropriate discount rate for this type of project is 8.0% pa.

ASSESSMENT QUESTION
1/ Discuss the nature and value to society of the research being done by BSF Ltd
2/ Discuss the problems with the early the research done by BSF Ltd
3/ Define and discuss the nature of and differences between research and development (R&D). Also, discuss how research and development are accounted for, why the differences, and why firm engage in R&D.
4/ What is the fair market value patent – give your assumptions and calculations

P/S: I do not need you do the introduction or conclusion. You just only do the Body with 4 requirement question above. Must have the heading for each question